Langs G, Sweet A, Lashkari D, Tie Y, Rigolo L, Golby AJ, Golland P. Decoupling Function and Anatomy in Atlases of Functional Connectivity patterns: Language Mapping in Tumor Patients. Neuroimage. 2014;103 :462-75.Abstract

In this paper we construct an atlas that summarizes functional connectivity characteristics of a cognitive process from a population of individuals. The atlas encodes functional connectivity structure in a low-dimensional embedding space that is derived from a diffusion process on a graph that represents correlations of fMRI time courses. The functional atlas is decoupled from the anatomical space, and thus can represent functional networks with variable spatial distribution in a population. In practice the atlas is represented by a common prior distribution for the embedded fMRI signals of all subjects. We derive an algorithm for fitting this generative model to the observed data in a population. Our results in a language fMRI study demonstrate that the method identifies coherent and functionally equivalent regions across subjects. The method also successfully maps functional networks from a healthy population used as a training set to individuals whose language networks are affected by tumors.

Tie Y, Rigolo L, Norton IH, Huang RY, Wu W, Orringer D, Mukundan S, Golby AJ. Defining Language Networks from Resting-state fMRI for Surgical Planning: A Feasibility Study. Hum Brain Mapp. 2014;35 (3) :1018-30.Abstract

Presurgical language mapping for patients with lesions close to language areas is critical to neurosurgical decision-making for preservation of language function. As a clinical noninvasive imaging technique, functional MRI (fMRI) is used to identify language areas by measuring blood-oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) signal change while patients perform carefully timed language vs. control tasks. This task-based fMRI critically depends on task performance, excluding many patients who have difficulty performing language tasks due to neurologic deficits. On the basis of recent discovery of resting-state fMRI (rs-fMRI), we propose a "task-free" paradigm acquiring fMRI data when patients simply are at rest. This paradigm is less demanding for patients to perform and easier for technologists to administer. We investigated the feasibility of this approach in right-handed healthy control subjects. First, group independent component analysis (ICA) was applied on the training group (14 subjects) to identify group level language components based on expert rating results. Then, four empirically and structurally defined language network templates were assessed for their ability to identify language components from individuals' ICA output of the testing group (18 subjects) based on spatial similarity analysis. Results suggest that it is feasible to extract language activations from rs-fMRI at the individual subject level, and two empirically defined templates (that focuses on frontal language areas and that incorporates both frontal and temporal language areas) demonstrated the best performance. We propose a semi-automated language component identification procedure and discuss the practical concerns and suggestions for this approach to be used in clinical fMRI language mapping.

Anand M, King F, Ungi T, Lasso A, Rudan J, Jayender J, Fritz J, Carrino JA, Jolesz FA, Fichtinger G. Design and Development of a Mobile Image Overlay System for Needle Interventions. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2014;2014 :6159-62.Abstract

Previously, a static and adjustable image overlay systems were proposed for aiding needle interventions. The system was either fixed to a scanner or mounted over a large articulated counterbalanced arm. Certain drawbacks associated with these systems limited the clinical translation. In order to minimize these limitations, we present the mobile image overlay system with the objective of reduced system weight, smaller dimension, and increased tracking accuracy. The design study includes optimal workspace definition, selection of display device, mirror, and laser source. The laser plane alignment, phantom design, image overlay plane calibration, and system accuracy validation methods are discussed. The virtual image is generated by a tablet device and projected into the patient by using a beamsplitter mirror. The viewbox weight (1.0 kg) was reduced by 8.2 times and image overlay plane tracking precision (0.21 mm, STD = 0.05) was improved by 5 times compared to previous system. The automatic self-calibration of the image overlay plane was achieved in two simple steps and can be done away from patient table. The fiducial registration error of the physical phantom to scanned image volume registration was 1.35 mm (STD = 0.11). The reduced system weight and increased accuracy of optical tracking should enable the system to be hand held by the physician and explore the image volume over the patient for needle interventions.

Fennessy FM, McKay RR, Beard CJ, Taplin M-E, Tempany CM. Dynamic Contrast-enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Prostate Cancer Clinical Trials: Potential Roles and Possible Pitfalls. Transl Oncol. 2014;7 (1) :120-9.Abstract

Dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) evaluates the tissue microvasculature and may have a role in assessing and predicting therapeutic response in prostate cancer (PCa). In this review, we review principles of DCE-MRI and present the potential quantitative information that can be obtained. We discuss how it may be used as a biomarker for treatment with antiangiogenic and antivascular agents and potentially identify patients with PCa who may benefit from this form of therapy. Likewise, DCE-MRI may play a role in assessing response to combined androgen deprivation therapy and radiation therapy and theoretically could be a prognostic biomarker in evaluating second-generation hormone therapies. We also address the challenges of using DCE-MRI in PCa clinical trials and discuss the difficulties with standardization of this methodology to allow for biomarker validation, with particular reference to PCa.

Forgacs PB, Sarkis R, Folkerth R, Golby AJ, Hsu L, Bubrick EJ, Dworetzky BA. Focal Cortical Dysplasia IIb Presenting as Slowly Progressive Aphasia Mimicking a Brain Tumor. Seizure. 2014;23 (2) :161-3.
Wachinger C, Golland P, Reuter M, Wells III WM. Gaussian Process Interpolation for Uncertainty Estimation in Image Registration. Med Image Comput Comput Assist Interv. 2014;17 (Pt 1) :267-74.Abstract

Intensity-based image registration requires resampling images on a common grid to evaluate the similarity function. The uncertainty of interpolation varies across the image, depending on the location of resampled points relative to the base grid. We propose to perform Bayesian inference with Gaussian processes, where the covariance matrix of the Gaussian process posterior distribution estimates the uncertainty in interpolation. The Gaussian process replaces a single image with a distribution over images that we integrate into a generative model for registration. Marginalization over resampled images leads to a new similarity measure that includes the uncertainty of the interpolation. We demonstrate that our approach increases the registration accuracy and propose an efficient approximation scheme that enables seamless integration with existing registration methods.

Santagata S, Eberlin LS, Norton I, Calligaris D, Feldman DR, Ide JL, Liu X, Wiley JS, Vestal ML, Ramkissoon SH, et al. Intraoperative Mass Spectrometry Mapping of an Onco-metabolite to Guide Brain Tumor Surgery. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014;111 (30) :11121-6.Abstract

For many intraoperative decisions surgeons depend on frozen section pathology, a technique developed over 150 y ago. Technical innovations that permit rapid molecular characterization of tissue samples at the time of surgery are needed. Here, using desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) MS, we rapidly detect the tumor metabolite 2-hydroxyglutarate (2-HG) from tissue sections of surgically resected gliomas, under ambient conditions and without complex or time-consuming preparation. With DESI MS, we identify isocitrate dehydrogenase 1-mutant tumors with both high sensitivity and specificity within minutes, immediately providing critical diagnostic, prognostic, and predictive information. Imaging tissue sections with DESI MS shows that the 2-HG signal overlaps with areas of tumor and that 2-HG levels correlate with tumor content, thereby indicating tumor margins. Mapping the 2-HG signal onto 3D MRI reconstructions of tumors allows the integration of molecular and radiologic information for enhanced clinical decision making. We also validate the methodology and its deployment in the operating room: We have installed a mass spectrometer in our Advanced Multimodality Image Guided Operating (AMIGO) suite and demonstrate the molecular analysis of surgical tissue during brain surgery. This work indicates that metabolite-imaging MS could transform many aspects of surgical care.

Gregory ST, Schmidt EJ, Zhang SH, Kwong RY, Stevenson WG, Murrow JR, Tse ZTH. Left-ventricular Mechanical Activation and Aortic-arch Orientation Recovered from Magneto-hydrodynamic Voltages Observed in 12-lead ECGs Obtained Inside MRIs: A Feasibility Study. Ann Biomed Eng. 2014;42 (12) :2480-9.Abstract

To explore use of the Magnetohydrodynamic Voltage (VMHD), observed in intra-MRI 12-lead electrocardiograms (ECG), to indicate the timing of the onset of left-ventricular mechanical activation (LVMA) and the orientation of the aortic-arch (AAO). Blood flow through the aortic arch during systole, in the presence of the MRI magnetic field (B 0), generates VMHD. Since the magnitude and direction of VMHD are determined by the timing and directionality of blood flow relative to B 0, we hypothesized that clinically useful measures, LVMA and AAO, could be extracted from temporal and vectorial VMHD characteristics. VMHD signals were extracted from 12-lead ECG traces by comparing traces obtained inside and outside the MRI scanner. VMHD was converted into the Vectorcardiogram frame of reference. LVMA was quantified in 1 subject at 1.5T and 3 subjects at 3T, and the result compared to CINE MRI. AAO was inferred for 4 subjects at 3T and compared to anatomical imaging of the aortic arch orientation in the transverse plane. A < 10% error was observed in LVMA measurements, while a < 3° error was observed in aortic arch orientation measurements. The temporal and vectorial nature of VMHD is useful in estimating these clinically relevant parameters.

Glykys J, Dzhala V, Egawa K, Balena T, Saponjian Y, Kuchibhotla KV, Bacskai BJ, Kahle KT, Zeuthen T, Staley KJ. Local Impermeant Anions Establish the Neuronal Chloride Concentration. Science. 2014;343 (6171) :670-5.Abstract

Neuronal intracellular chloride concentration [Cl(-)](i) is an important determinant of γ-aminobutyric acid type A (GABA(A)) receptor (GABA(A)R)-mediated inhibition and cytoplasmic volume regulation. Equilibrative cation-chloride cotransporters (CCCs) move Cl(-) across the membrane, but accumulating evidence suggests factors other than the bulk concentrations of transported ions determine [Cl(-)](i). Measurement of [Cl(-)](i) in murine brain slice preparations expressing the transgenic fluorophore Clomeleon demonstrated that cytoplasmic impermeant anions ([A](i)) and polyanionic extracellular matrix glycoproteins ([A](o)) constrain the local [Cl(-)]. CCC inhibition had modest effects on [Cl(-)](i) and neuronal volume, but substantial changes were produced by alterations of the balance between [A](i) and [A](o). Therefore, CCCs are important elements of Cl(-) homeostasis, but local impermeant anions determine the homeostatic set point for [Cl(-)], and hence, neuronal volume and the polarity of local GABA(A)R signaling.

Jolesz FA, McDannold NJ. Magnetic Resonance-guided Focused Ultrasound: A New Technology for Clinical Neurosciences. Neurol Clin. 2014;32 (1) :253-69.Abstract

Transcranial MRI-guided focused ultrasound (TcMRgFUS) is an old idea but a new technology that may change the entire clinical field of the neurosciences. TcMRgFUS has no cumulative effect, and it is applicable for repeatable treatments, controlled by real-time dosimetry, and capable of immediate tissue destruction. Most importantly, it has extremely accurate targeting and constant monitoring. It is potentially more precise than proton beam therapy and definitely more cost effective. Neuro-oncology may be the most promising area of future TcMRgFUS applications.

Garlapati RR, Roy A, Joldes GR, Wittek A, Mostayed A, Doyle B, Warfield SK, Kikinis R, Knuckey N, Bunt S, et al. More Accurate Neuronavigation Data Provided by Biomechanical Modeling Instead of Rigid Registration. J Neurosurg. 2014;120 (6) :1477-83.Abstract

It is possible to improve neuronavigation during image-guided surgery by warping the high-quality preoperative brain images so that they correspond with the current intraoperative configuration of the brain. In this paper, the accuracy of registration results obtained using comprehensive biomechanical models is compared with the accuracy of rigid registration, the technology currently available to patients. This comparison allows investigation into whether biomechanical modeling provides good-quality image data for neuronavigation for a larger proportion of patients than rigid registration. Preoperative images for 33 neurosurgery cases were warped onto their respective intraoperative configurations using both the biomechanics-based method and rigid registration. The Hausdorff distance-based evaluation process, which measures the difference between images, was used to quantify the performance of both registration methods. A statistical test for difference in proportions was conducted to evaluate the null hypothesis that the proportion of patients for whom improved neuronavigation can be achieved is the same for rigid and biomechanics-based registration. The null hypothesis was confidently rejected (p < 10(-4)). Even the modified hypothesis that fewer than 25% of patients would benefit from the use of biomechanics-based registration was rejected at a significance level of 5% (p = 0.02). The biomechanics-based method proved particularly effective in cases demonstrating large craniotomy-induced brain deformations. The outcome of this analysis suggests that nonlinear biomechanics-based methods are beneficial to a large proportion of patients and can be considered for use in the operating theater as a possible means of improving neuronavigation and surgical outcomes.

Chen Y, Kwok K-W, Tse ZTH. An MR-conditional High-torque Pneumatic Stepper Motor for MRI-guided and Robot-assisted Intervention. Ann Biomed Eng. 2014;42 (9) :1823-33.Abstract

Magnetic resonance imaging allows for visualizing detailed pathological and morphological changes of soft tissue. MR-conditional actuations have been widely investigated for development of image-guided and robot-assisted surgical devices under the Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). This paper presents a simple design of MR-conditional stepper motor which can provide precise and high-torque actuation without adversely affecting the MR image quality. This stepper motor consists of two MR-conditional pneumatic cylinders and the corresponding supporting structures. Alternating the pressurized air can drive the motor to rotate each step in 3.6° with the motor coupled to a planetary gearbox. Experimental studies were conducted to validate its dynamics performance. Maximum 800 mN m output torque is achieved. The motor accuracy independently varied by two factors: motor operating speed and step size, was also investigated. The motor was tested within a 3T Siemens MRI scanner (MAGNETOM Skyra, Siemens Medical Solutions, Erlangen, Germany) and a 3T GE MRI scanner (GE SignaHDx, GE Healthcare, Milwaukee, WI, USA). The image artifact and the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) were evaluated for study of its MRI compliancy. The results show that the presented pneumatic stepper motor generated 2.35% SNR reduction in MR images. No observable artifact was presented besides the motor body itself. The proposed motor test also demonstrates a standard to evaluate the pneumatic motor capability for later incorporation with motorized devices used under MRI.

Paltiel HJ, Estrada CR, Alomari AI, Stamoulis C, Passerotti CC, Meral CF, Lee RS, Clement GT. Multi-planar Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound Assessment of Blood Flow in a Rabbit Model of Testicular Torsion. Ultrasound Med Biol. 2014;40 (2) :361-70.Abstract

To assess correlation between multi-planar, dynamic contrast-enhanced ultrasound (US) blood flow measurements and radiolabeled microsphere blood flow measurements, five groups of six rabbits underwent unilateral testicular torsion of 0°, 180°, 360°, 540° or 720°. Five US measurements per testis (three transverse/two longitudinal) were obtained pre-operatively and immediately and 4 and 8 h post-operatively using linear transducers (7-4 MHz/center frequency 4.5 MHz/10 rabbits; 9-3 MHz/center frequency 5.5 MHz/20 rabbits). Björck's linear least-squares method fit the rise phase of mean pixel intensity over a 7-s period for each time curve. Slope of fit and intervention/control US pixel intensity ratios were calculated. Means of transverse, longitudinal and combined transverse/longitudinal US ratios as a function of torsion degree were compared with radiolabeled microsphere ratios using Pearson's correlation coefficient, ρ. There was high correlation between the two sets of ratios (ρ ≥ 0.88, p ≤ 0.05), except for the transverse US ratio in the immediate post-operative period (ρ = 0.79, p = 0.11). These results hold promise for future clinical applications.

Crabb MG, Davidson JL, Little R, Wright P, Morgan AR, Miller CA, Naish JH, Parker GJM, Kikinis R, McCann H, et al. Mutual Information as a Measure of Image Quality for 3-D Dynamic Lung Imaging with EIT. Physiol Meas. 2014;35 (5) :863-79.Abstract

We report on a pilot study of dynamic lung electrical impedance tomography (EIT) at the University of Manchester. Low-noise EIT data at 100 frames per second were obtained from healthy male subjects during controlled breathing, followed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) subsequently used for spatial validation of the EIT reconstruction. The torso surface in the MR image and electrode positions obtained using MRI fiducial markers informed the construction of a 3D finite element model extruded along the caudal-distal axis of the subject. Small changes in the boundary that occur during respiration were accounted for by incorporating the sensitivity with respect to boundary shape into a robust temporal difference reconstruction algorithm. EIT and MRI images were co-registered using the open source medical imaging software, 3D Slicer. A quantitative comparison of quality of different EIT reconstructions was achieved through calculation of the mutual information with a lung-segmented MR image. EIT reconstructions using a linear shape correction algorithm reduced boundary image artefacts, yielding better contrast of the lungs, and had 10% greater mutual information compared with a standard linear EIT reconstruction.

Schmidt EJ, Fung MM, Ciris PA, Song T, Shankaranarayanan A, Holmvang G, Gupta SN, Chaput M, Levine RA, Ruskin J, et al. Navigated DENSE Strain Imaging for Post-radiofrequency Ablation Lesion Assessment in the Swine Left Atria. Europace. 2014;16 (1) :133-41.Abstract

AIMS: Prior work has demonstrated that magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) strain can separate necrotic/stunned myocardium from healthy myocardium in the left ventricle (LV). We surmised that high-resolution MRI strain, using navigator-echo-triggered DENSE, could differentiate radiofrequency ablated tissue around the pulmonary vein (PV) from tissue that had not been damaged by radiofrequency energy, similarly to navigated 3D myocardial delayed enhancement (3D-MDE). METHODS AND RESULTS: A respiratory-navigated 2D-DENSE sequence was developed, providing strain encoding in two spatial directions with 1.2 × 1.0 × 4 mm(3) resolution. It was tested in the LV of infarcted sheep. In four swine, incomplete circumferential lesions were created around the right superior pulmonary vein (RSPV) using ablation catheters, recorded with electro-anatomic mapping, and imaged 1 h later using atrial-diastolic DENSE and 3D-MDE at the left atrium/RSPV junction. DENSE detected ablation gaps (regions with >12% strain) in similar positions to 3D-MDE (2D cross-correlation 0.89 ± 0.05). Low-strain (<8%) areas were, on average, 33% larger than equivalent MDE regions, so they include both injured and necrotic regions. Optimal DENSE orientation was perpendicular to the PV trunk, with high shear strain in adjacent viable tissue appearing as a sensitive marker of ablation lesions. CONCLUSIONS: Magnetic resonance imaging strain may be a non-contrast alternative to 3D-MDE in intra-procedural monitoring of atrial ablation lesions.

Yoshimitsu K, Kato T, Song S-E, Hata N. A Novel Four-wire-driven Robotic Catheter for Radio-frequency Ablation Treatment. Int J Comput Assist Radiol Surg. 2014;9 (5) :867-74.Abstract

PURPOSE:    Robotic catheters have been proposed to increase the efficacy and safety of the radio-frequency ablation treatment. The robotized motion of current robotic catheters mimics the motion of manual ones-namely, deflection in one direction and rotation around the catheter. With the expectation that the higher dexterity may achieve further efficacy and safety of the robotically driven treatment, we prototyped a four-wire-driven robotic catheter with the ability to deflect in two- degree-of-freedom motions in addition to rotation. METHODS:    A novel quad-directional structure with two wires was designed and developed to attain yaw and pitch motion in the robotic catheter. We performed a mechanical evaluation of the bendability and maneuverability of the robotic catheter and compared it with current manual catheters. RESULTS:    We found that the four-wire-driven robotic catheter can achieve a pitching angle of 184.7[Formula: see text] at a pulling distance of wire for 11 mm, while the yawing angle was 170.4[Formula: see text] at 11 mm. The robotic catheter could attain the simultaneous two- degree-of-freedom motions in a simulated cardiac chamber. CONCLUSION:    The results indicate that the four-wire-driven robotic catheter may offer physicians the opportunity to intuitively control a catheter and smoothly approach the focus position that they aim to ablate.

Golshan M, Sagara Y, Wexelman B, Aydogan F, Desantis S, Elise Min H, Vosburgh K, Jagadeesan J, Caragacianu D, Gombos E, et al. Pilot Study to Evaluate Feasibility of Image-Guided Breast-Conserving Therapy in the Advanced Multimodal Image-Guided Operating (AMIGO) Suite. Ann Surg Oncol. 2014;21 (10) :3356-7.Abstract

BACKGROUND: The rate of reexcision in breast-conserving surgery remains high, leading to delay in initiation of adjuvant therapy, increased cost, increased complications, and negative psychological impact to the patient.1 (-) 3 We initiated a phase 1 clinical trial to determine the feasibility of the use of intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to assess margins in the advanced multimodal image-guided operating (AMIGO) suite. METHODS: All patients received contrast-enhanced three-dimensional MRI while under general anesthesia in the supine position, followed by standard BCT with or without wire guidance and sentinel node biopsy. Additional margin reexcision was performed of suspicious margins and correlated to final pathology (Fig. 1). Feasibility was assessed via two components: demonstration of safety and sterility and acceptable duration of the operation and imaging; and adequacy of intraoperative MRI imaging for interpretation and its comparison to final pathology. Fig. 1 Schema of AMIGO trial RESULTS: Eight patients (mean age 48.5 years), 4 with stage I breast cancer and 4 with stage II breast cancer, were recruited. All patients underwent successful BCT in the AMIGO suite with no AMIGO-specific complications or break in sterility during surgery. The mean operative time was 113 min (range 93-146 min). CONCLUSIONS: Our experience with AMIGO suggests that it is feasible to use intraoperative MRI imaging to evaluate margin assessment in real time. Further research is required to identify modalities that will lead to a reduction in reexcision in breast cancer therapy.

Penzkofer T, Tempany CM. Prostate Cancer Detection and Diagnosis: The Role of MR and its Comparison with Other Diagnostic Modalities - A Radiologist's Perspective. NMR Biomed. 2014;27 (1) :3-15.Abstract

It is now universally recognized that many prostate cancers are over-diagnosed and over-treated. The European Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer from 2009 evidenced that, to save one man from death from prostate cancer, over 1400 men need to be screened, and 48 need to undergo treatment. The detection of prostate cancer is traditionally based on digital rectal examination (DRE) and the measurement of serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA), followed by ultrasound-guided biopsy. The primary role of imaging for the detection and diagnosis of prostate cancer has been transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) guidance during biopsy. Traditionally, MRI has been used primarily for the staging of disease in men with biopsy-proven cancer. It has a well-established role in the detection of T3 disease, planning of radiation therapy, especially three-dimensional conformal or intensity-modulated external beam radiation therapy, and planning and guiding of interstitial seed implant or brachytherapy. New advances have now established that prostate MRI can accurately characterize focal lesions within the gland, an ability that has led to new opportunities for improved cancer detection and guidance for biopsy. Two new approaches to prostate biopsy are under investigation. Both use pre-biopsy MRI to define potential targets for sampling, and the biopsy is performed either with direct real-time MR guidance (in-bore) or MR fusion/registration with TRUS images (out-of-bore). In-bore and out-of-bore MRI-guided prostate biopsies have the advantage of using the MR target definition for the accurate localization and sampling of targets or suspicious lesions. The out-of-bore method uses combined MRI/TRUS with fusion software that provides target localization and increases the sampling accuracy of TRUS-guided biopsies by integrating prostate MRI information with TRUS. Newer parameters for each imaging modality, such as sonoelastography or shear wave elastography, contrast-enhanced ultrasound and MRI elastography, show promise to further enrich datasets.

Fedorov A, Song S-E, Kapur T, Owen R, Sugar EN, Nguyen P, Wells III WM, Tempany CM. Prototype Design and Phantom Evaluation of a Device for Co-registered MRI/TRUS Imaging of the Prostate. Clin Image Based Proced. 2014;8361 :125-33.Abstract

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and transrectal Ultrasound (TRUS) are both used in imaging interventions in men suspected of having and with prostate cancer for diagnosis as well as treatment. Due to the widespread availability and ease of use of TRUS, it is widely acknowledged that availability of spatially registered MRI/TRUS data could provide the optimal combination for characterization of prostate tissue and interventional guidance. To provide such spatially aligned data, we propose a device to support co-registered acquisition of MRI and TRUS data while maintaining a stable configuration (shape) of the prostate. We present the design and evaluation of a custom sleeve that can be introduced transrectally, and can accommodate both TRUS and endorectal MRI probes. Our experiments on a phantom have demonstrated that imaging with this sleeve did not compromise differentiation of internal structures and did not affect the quality of the MR acquisition. Reduction of the signal and contrast were however observed and quantified in the TRUS data. Further evaluation and modification of the device necessary for possible patient studies are discussed.

Gill G, Toews M, Beichel R. Robust Initialization of Active Shape Models for Lung Segmentation in CT Scans: A Feature-Based Atlas Approach. Int J Biomed Imaging. 2014;2014 :479154.Abstract

Model-based segmentation methods have the advantage of incorporating a priori shape information into the segmentation process but suffer from the drawback that the model must be initialized sufficiently close to the target. We propose a novel approach for initializing an active shape model (ASM) and apply it to 3D lung segmentation in CT scans. Our method constructs an atlas consisting of a set of representative lung features and an average lung shape. The ASM pose parameters are found by transforming the average lung shape based on an affine transform computed from matching features between the new image and representative lung features. Our evaluation on a diverse set of 190 images showed an average dice coefficient of 0.746 ± 0.068 for initialization and 0.974 ± 0.017 for subsequent segmentation, based on an independent reference standard. The mean absolute surface distance error was 0.948 ± 1.537 mm. The initialization as well as segmentation results showed a statistically significant improvement compared to four other approaches. The proposed initialization method can be generalized to other applications employing ASM-based segmentation.