Lemaire J-J, Golby AJ, Wells III WM, Pujol S, Tie Y, Rigolo L, Yarmarkovich A, Pieper S, Westin C-F, Jolesz FA, et al. Extended Broca's Area in the Functional Connectome of Language in Adults: Combined Cortical and Subcortical Single-subject Analysis using fMRI and DTI Tractography. Brain Topogr. 2013;26 (3) :428-41.Abstract

Traditional models of the human language circuitry encompass three cortical areas, Broca's, Geschwind's and Wernicke's, and their connectivity through white matter fascicles. The neural connectivity deep to these cortical areas remains poorly understood, as does the macroscopic functional organization of the cortico-subcortical language circuitry. In an effort to expand current knowledge, we combined functional MRI (fMRI) and diffusion tensor imaging to explore subject-specific structural and functional macroscopic connectivity, focusing on Broca's area. Fascicles were studied using diffusion tensor imaging fiber tracking seeded from volumes placed manually within the white matter. White matter fascicles and fMRI-derived clusters (antonym-generation task) of positive and negative blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) signal were co-registered with 3-D renderings of the brain in 12 healthy subjects. Fascicles connecting BOLD-derived clusters were analyzed within specific cortical areas: Broca's, with the pars triangularis, the pars opercularis, and the pars orbitaris; Geschwind's and Wernicke's; the premotor cortex, the dorsal supplementary motor area, the middle temporal gyrus, the dorsal prefrontal cortex and the frontopolar region. We found a functional connectome divisible into three systems-anterior, superior and inferior-around the insula, more complex than previously thought, particularly with respect to a new extended Broca's area. The extended Broca's area involves two new fascicles: the operculo-premotor fascicle comprised of well-organized U-shaped fibers that connect the pars opercularis with the premotor region; and (2) the triangulo-orbitaris system comprised of intermingled U-shaped fibers that connect the pars triangularis with the pars orbitaris. The findings enhance our understanding of language function.

Toews M, Zöllei L, Wells III WM. Feature-based Alignment of Volumetric Multi-modal Images. Inf Process Med Imaging. 2013;23 :25-36.Abstract

This paper proposes a method for aligning image volumes acquired from different imaging modalities (e.g. MR, CT) based on 3D scale-invariant image features. A novel method for encoding invariant feature geometry and appearance is developed, based on the assumption of locally linear intensity relationships, providing a solution to poor repeatability of feature detection in different image modalities. The encoding method is incorporated into a probabilistic feature-based model for multi-modal image alignment. The model parameters are estimated via a group-wise alignment algorithm, that iteratively alternates between estimating a feature-based model from feature data, then realigning feature data to the model, converging to a stable alignment solution with few pre-processing or pre-alignment requirements. The resulting model can be used to align multi-modal image data with the benefits of invariant feature correspondence: globally optimal solutions, high efficiency and low memory usage. The method is tested on the difficult RIRE data set of CT, T1, T2, PD and MP-RAGE brain images of subjects exhibiting significant inter-subject variability due to pathology.

O'Donnell LJ, Golby AJ, Westin C-F. Fiber Clustering versus the Parcellation-based Connectome. Neuroimage. 2013;80 :283-9.Abstract

We compare two strategies for modeling the connections of the brain's white matter: fiber clustering and the parcellation-based connectome. Both methods analyze diffusion magnetic resonance imaging fiber tractography to produce a quantitative description of the brain's connections. Fiber clustering is designed to reconstruct anatomically-defined white matter tracts, while the parcellation-based white matter segmentation enables the study of the brain as a network. From the perspective of white matter segmentation, we compare and contrast the goals and methods of the parcellation-based and clustering approaches, with special focus on reviewing the field of fiber clustering. We also propose a third category of new hybrid methods that combine the aspects of parcellation and clustering, for joint analysis of connection structure and anatomy or function. We conclude that these different approaches for segmentation and modeling of the white matter can advance the neuroscientific study of the brain's connectivity in complementary ways.

Kuhnt D, Bauer MHA, Egger J, Richter M, Kapur T, Sommer J, Merhof D, Nimsky C. Fiber Tractography Based on Diffusion Tensor Imaging Compared with High-Angular-Resolution Diffusion Imaging with Compressed Sensing: Initial Experience. Neurosurgery. 2013;72 Suppl 1 :165-75.Abstract

BACKGROUND: The most frequently used method for fiber tractography based on diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is associated with restrictions in the resolution of crossing or kissing fibers and in the vicinity of tumor or edema. Tractography based on high-angular-resolution diffusion imaging (HARDI) is capable of overcoming this restriction. With compressed sensing (CS) techniques, HARDI acquisitions with a smaller number of directional measurements can be used, thus enabling the use of HARDI-based fiber tractography in clinical practice. OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether HARDI+CS-based fiber tractography improves the display of neuroanatomically complex pathways and in areas of disturbed diffusion properties. METHODS: Six patients with gliomas in the vicinity of language-related areas underwent 3-T magnetic resonance imaging including a diffusion-weighted data set with 30 gradient directions. Additionally, functional magnetic resonance imaging for cortical language sites was obtained. Fiber tractography was performed with deterministic streamline algorithms based on DTI using 3 different software platforms. Additionally, tractography based on reconstructed diffusion signals using HARDI+CS was performed. RESULTS: HARDI+CS-based tractography displayed more compact fiber bundles compared with the DTI-based results in all cases. In 3 cases, neuroanatomically plausible fiber bundles were displayed in the vicinity of tumor and peritumoral edema, which could not be traced on the basis of DTI. The curvature around the sylvian fissure was displayed properly in 6 cases and in only 2 cases with DTI-based tractography. CONCLUSION: HARDI+CS seems to be a promising approach for fiber tractography in clinical practice for neuroanatomically complex fiber pathways and in areas of disturbed diffusion, overcoming the problem of long acquisition times.

Monje M, Thomason ME, Rigolo L, Wang Y, Waber DP, Sallan SE, Golby AJ. Functional and Structural Differences in the Hippocampus Associated with Memory Deficits in Adult Survivors of Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2013;60 (2) :293-300.Abstract

BACKGROUND: Radiation and chemotherapy targeted to the central nervous system (CNS) can cause cognitive impairment, including impaired memory. These memory impairments may be referable to damage to hippocampal structures resulting from CNS treatment. PROCEDURE: In the present study, we explored episodic memory and its neuroimaging correlates in 10 adult survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) treated with cranial radiation therapy and both systemic and intrathecal chemotherapy and 10 controls matched for age and sex, using a subsequent memory paradigm after episodic encoding of visual scenes. RESULTS: We report behavioral, structural, and functional changes in the brains of the adult survivors. They demonstrated poorer recognition memory, hippocampal atrophy, and altered blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signal in the hippocampus. Whole brain statistical map analysis revealed increased BOLD signal/activation in several brain regions during unsuccessful encoding in ALL survivors, potentially reflecting ineffective neural recruitment. Individual differences in memory performance in ALL participants were related to magnitude of BOLD response in regions associated with successful encoding. CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, these findings describe long term neuroimaging correlates of cognitive dysfunction after childhood exposure to CNS-targeted cancer therapies, suggesting enduring damage to episodic memory systems.

Egger J, Kapur T, Fedorov A, Pieper S, Miller JV, Veeraraghavan H, Freisleben B, Golby AJ, Nimsky C, Kikinis R. GBM Volumetry using the 3D Slicer Medical Image Computing Platform. Sci Rep. 2013;3 :1364.Abstract

Volumetric change in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) over time is a critical factor in treatment decisions. Typically, the tumor volume is computed on a slice-by-slice basis using MRI scans obtained at regular intervals. (3D)Slicer - a free platform for biomedical research - provides an alternative to this manual slice-by-slice segmentation process, which is significantly faster and requires less user interaction. In this study, 4 physicians segmented GBMs in 10 patients, once using the competitive region-growing based GrowCut segmentation module of Slicer, and once purely by drawing boundaries completely manually on a slice-by-slice basis. Furthermore, we provide a variability analysis for three physicians for 12 GBMs. The time required for GrowCut segmentation was on an average 61% of the time required for a pure manual segmentation. A comparison of Slicer-based segmentation with manual slice-by-slice segmentation resulted in a Dice Similarity Coefficient of 88.43 ± 5.23% and a Hausdorff Distance of 2.32 ± 5.23 mm.

Willment KC, Golby AJ. Hemispheric Lateralization Interrupted: Material-Specific Memory Deficits in Temporal Lobe Epilepsy. Front Hum Neurosci. 2013;7 :546.Abstract

The hemispheric lateralization of memory has largely been informed through the study of patients with temporal lobe epilepsy originating from medial temporal sources (mTLE). The material-specific model of memory relies on the basic framework that the left temporal lobe mediates verbal memories, while the right temporal lobe mediates non-verbal memories. Over the years, this model has been refined, and even challenged, as our understanding of the material-specific memory deficits in mTLE has been further elaborated in the neuropsychological and neuroimaging literature. The first goal of this mini-review is to highlight the major findings in the mTLE literature that have advanced and expanded our understanding of material-specific memory deficits in mTLE. Second, we will review how functional neuroimaging patterns of material-specific hemispheric lateralization in mTLE are being translated into the innovative clinical application of preoperative fMRI memory mapping.

Arvanitis CD, McDannold N. Integrated Ultrasound and Magnetic Resonance Imaging for Simultaneous Temperature and Cavitation Monitoring during Focused Ultrasound Therapies. Med Phys. 2013;40 (11) :112901.Abstract

PURPOSE: Ultrasound can be used to noninvasively produce different bioeffects via viscous heating, acoustic cavitation, or their combination, and these effects can be exploited to develop a wide range of therapies for cancer and other disorders. In order to accurately localize and control these different effects, imaging methods are desired that can map both temperature changes and cavitation activity. To address these needs, the authors integrated an ultrasound imaging array into an MRI-guided focused ultrasound (MRgFUS) system to simultaneously visualize thermal and mechanical effects via passive acoustic mapping (PAM) and MR temperature imaging (MRTI), respectively. METHODS: The system was tested with an MRgFUS system developed for transcranial sonication for brain tumor ablation in experiments with a tissue mimicking phantom and a phantom-filled ex vivo macaque skull. In experiments on cavitation-enhanced heating, 10 s continuous wave sonications were applied at increasing power levels (30-110 W) until broadband acoustic emissions (a signature for inertial cavitation) were evident. The presence or lack of signal in the PAM, as well as its magnitude and location, were compared to the focal heating in the MRTI. Additional experiments compared PAM with standard B-mode ultrasound imaging and tested the feasibility of the system to map cavitation activity produced during low-power (5 W) burst sonications in a channel filled with a microbubble ultrasound contrast agent. RESULTS: When inertial cavitation was evident, localized activity was present in PAM and a marked increase in heating was observed in MRTI. The location of the cavitation activity and heating agreed on average after registration of the two imaging modalities; the distance between the maximum cavitation activity and focal heating was -3.4 ± 2.1 mm and -0.1 ± 3.3 mm in the axial and transverse ultrasound array directions, respectively. Distortions and other MRI issues introduced small uncertainties in the PAM∕MRTI registration. Although there was substantial variation, a nonlinear relationship between the average intensity of the cavitation maps, which was relatively constant during sonication, and the peak temperature rise was evident. A fit to the data to an exponential had a correlation coefficient (R(2)) of 0.62. The system was also found to be capable of visualizing cavitation activity with B-mode imaging and of passively mapping cavitation activity transcranially during cavitation-enhanced heating and during low-power sonication with an ultrasound contrast agent. CONCLUSIONS: The authors have demonstrated the feasibility of integrating an ultrasound imaging array into an MRgFUS system to simultaneously map localized cavitation activity and temperature. The authors anticipate that this integrated approach can be utilized to develop controllers for cavitation-enhanced ablation and facilitate the optimization and development of this and other ultrasound therapies. The integrated system may also provide a useful tool to study the bioeffects of acoustic cavitation.

Calligaris D, Norton I, Feldman DR, Ide JL, Dunn IF, Eberlin LS, Cooks GR, Jolesz FA, Golby AJ, Santagata S, et al. Mass Spectrometry Imaging as a Tool for Surgical Decision-making. J Mass Spectrom. 2013;48 (11) :1178-87.Abstract

Despite significant advances in image-guided therapy, surgeons are still too often left with uncertainty when deciding to remove tissue. This binary decision between removing and leaving tissue during surgery implies that the surgeon should be able to distinguish tumor from healthy tissue. In neurosurgery, current image-guidance approaches such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) combined with neuronavigation offer a map as to where the tumor should be, but the only definitive method to characterize the tissue at stake is histopathology. Although extremely valuable information is derived from this gold standard approach, it is limited to very few samples during surgery and is not practically used for the delineation of tumor margins. The development and implementation of faster, comprehensive, and complementary approaches for tissue characterization are required to support surgical decision-making--an incremental and iterative process with tumor removed in multiple and often minute biopsies. The development of atmospheric pressure ionization sources makes it possible to analyze tissue specimens with little to no sample preparation. Here, we highlight the value of desorption electrospray ionization as one of many available approaches for the analysis of surgical tissue. Twelve surgical samples resected from a patient during surgery were analyzed and diagnosed as glioblastoma tumor or necrotic tissue by standard histopathology, and mass spectrometry results were further correlated to histopathology for critical validation of the approach. The use of a robust statistical approach reiterated results from the qualitative detection of potential biomarkers of these tissue types. The correlation of the mass spectrometry and histopathology results to MRI brings significant insight into tumor presentation that could not only serve to guide tumor resection, but that is also worthy of more detailed studies on our understanding of tumor presentation on MRI.

Linte CA, Davenport KP, Cleary K, Peters C, Vosburgh KG, Navab N, Edwards PE, Jannin P, Peters TM, Holmes DR, et al. On Mixed Reality Environments for Minimally Invasive Therapy Guidance: Systems Architecture, Successes and Challenges in their Implementation from Laboratory to Clinic. Comput Med Imaging Graph. 2013;37 (2) :83-97.Abstract

Mixed reality environments for medical applications have been explored and developed over the past three decades in an effort to enhance the clinician's view of anatomy and facilitate the performance of minimally invasive procedures. These environments must faithfully represent the real surgical field and require seamless integration of pre- and intra-operative imaging, surgical instrument tracking, and display technology into a common framework centered around and registered to the patient. However, in spite of their reported benefits, few mixed reality environments have been successfully translated into clinical use. Several challenges that contribute to the difficulty in integrating such environments into clinical practice are presented here and discussed in terms of both technical and clinical limitations. This article should raise awareness among both developers and end-users toward facilitating a greater application of such environments in the surgical practice of the future.

Tunç B, Smith AR, Wasserman D, Pennec X, Wells III WM, Verma R, Pohl KM. Multinomial Probabilistic Fiber Representation for Connectivity Driven Clustering. Inf Process Med Imaging. 2013;23 :730-41.Abstract

The clustering of fibers into bundles is an important task in studying the structure and function of white matter. Existing technology mostly relies on geometrical features, such as the shape of fibers, and thus only provides very limited information about the neuroanatomical function of the brain. We advance this issue by proposing a multinomial representation of fibers decoding their connectivity to gray matter regions. We then simplify the clustering task by first deriving a compact encoding of our representation via the logit transformation. Furthermore, we define a distance between fibers that is in theory invariant to parcellation biases and is equivalent to a family of Riemannian metrics on the simplex of multinomial probabilities. We apply our method to longitudinal scans of two healthy subjects showing high reproducibility of the resulting fiber bundles without needing to register the corresponding scans to a common coordinate system. We confirm these qualitative findings via a simple statistical analyse of the fiber bundles.

Hegde JV, Mulkern RV, Panych LP, Fennessy FM, Fedorov A, Maier SE, Tempany CM. Multiparametric MRI of Prostate Cancer: An Update on State-of-the-art Techniques and their Performance in Detecting and Localizing Prostate Cancer. J Magn Reson Imaging. 2013;37 (5) :1035-54.Abstract

Magnetic resonance (MR) examinations of men with prostate cancer are most commonly performed for detecting, characterizing, and staging the extent of disease to best determine diagnostic or treatment strategies, which range from biopsy guidance to active surveillance to radical prostatectomy. Given both the exam's importance to individual treatment plans and the time constraints present for its operation at most institutions, it is essential to perform the study effectively and efficiently. This article reviews the most commonly employed modern techniques for prostate cancer MR examinations, exploring the relevant signal characteristics from the different methods discussed and relating them to intrinsic prostate tissue properties. Also, a review of recent articles using these methods to enhance clinical interpretation and assess clinical performance is provided. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2013;37:1035-1054. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Aryal M, Vykhodtseva N, Zhang Y-Z, Park J, McDannold N. Multiple Treatments with Liposomal Doxorubicin and Ultrasound-Induced Disruption of Blood-Tumor and Blood-Brain Barriers Improve Outcomes in a Rat Glioma Model. J Control Release. 2013;169 (1-2) :103-11.Abstract

The blood-brain-barrier (BBB) prevents the transport of most anticancer agents to the central nervous system and restricts delivery to infiltrating brain tumors. The heterogeneous vascular permeability in tumor vessels, along with several other factors, creates additional barriers for drug treatment of brain tumors. Focused ultrasound (FUS), when combined with circulating microbubbles, is an emerging noninvasive method to temporarily permeabilize the BBB and the "blood-tumor barrier". Here, we tested the impact of three weekly sessions of FUS and liposomal doxorubicin (DOX) in 9L rat glioma tumors. Animals that received FUS+DOX (N=8) had a median survival time that was increased significantly (P<0.001) compared to animals who received DOX only (N=6), FUS only (N=8), or no treatment (N=7). Median survival for animals that received FUS+DOX was increased by 100% relative to untreated controls, whereas animals who received DOX alone had only a 16% improvement. Animals who received only FUS showed no improvement. No tumor cells were found in histology in 4/8 animals in the FUS+DOX group, and in two animals, only a few tumor cells were detected. Adverse events in the treatment group included skin toxicity, impaired activity, damage to surrounding brain tissue, and tissue loss at the tumor site. In one animal, intratumoral hemorrhage was observed. These events are largely consistent with known side effects of doxorubicin and with an extensive tumor burden. Overall this work demonstrates that multiple sessions using this FUS technique to enhance the delivery of liposomal doxorubicin have a pronounced therapeutic effect in this rat glioma model.

Kato T, Okumura I, Song S-E, Hata N. Multi-section Continuum Robot for Endoscopic Surgical Clipping of Intracranial Aneurysms. Med Image Comput Comput Assist Interv. 2013;16 (Pt 1) :364-71.Abstract

We propose the development and assessment of a multi-section continuum robot for endoscopic surgical clipping of intracranial aneurysms. The robot has two sections for bending actuated by tendon wires. By actuating the two sections independently, the robot can generate a variety of posture combinations by these sections while maintaining the tip angle. This feature offers more flexibility in positioning of the tip than a conventional endoscope for large viewing angles of up to 180 degrees. To estimate the flexible positioning of the tip, we developed kinematic mapping with friction in tendon wires. In a kinematic-mapping simulation, the two-section robot at the target scale (i.e., an outer diameter of 1.7 mm and a length of 60 mm) had a variety of tip positions within 50-mm ranges at the 180 degree-angled view. In the experimental validation, the 1:10 scale prototype performed the three salient postures with different tip positions at the 1800-angled view.

McDannold N, Zhang Y-Z, Power C, Jolesz FA, Vykhodtseva N. Nonthermal Ablation with Microbubble-Enhanced Focused Ultrasound Close to the Optic Tract without Affecting Nerve Function. J Neurosurg. 2013;119 (5) :1208-20.Abstract

OBJECT: Tumors at the skull base are challenging for both resection and radiosurgery given the presence of critical adjacent structures, such as cranial nerves, blood vessels, and brainstem. Magnetic resonance imaging-guided thermal ablation via laser or other methods has been evaluated as a minimally invasive alternative to these techniques in the brain. Focused ultrasound (FUS) offers a noninvasive method of thermal ablation; however, skull heating limits currently available technology to ablation at regions distant from the skull bone. Here, the authors evaluated a method that circumvents this problem by combining the FUS exposures with injected microbubble-based ultrasound contrast agent. These microbubbles concentrate the ultrasound-induced effects on the vasculature, enabling an ablation method that does not cause significant heating of the brain or skull. METHODS: In 29 rats, a 525-kHz FUS transducer was used to ablate tissue structures at the skull base that were centered on or adjacent to the optic tract or chiasm. Low-intensity, low-duty-cycle ultrasound exposures (sonications) were applied for 5 minutes after intravenous injection of an ultrasound contrast agent (Definity, Lantheus Medical Imaging Inc.). Using histological analysis and visual evoked potential (VEP) measurements, the authors determined whether structural or functional damage was induced in the optic tract or chiasm. RESULTS: Overall, while the sonications produced a well-defined lesion in the gray matter targets, the adjacent tract and chiasm had comparatively little or no damage. No significant changes (p > 0.05) were found in the magnitude or latency of the VEP recordings, either immediately after sonication or at later times up to 4 weeks after sonication, and no delayed effects were evident in the histological features of the optic nerve and retina. CONCLUSIONS: This technique, which selectively targets the intravascular microbubbles, appears to be a promising method of noninvasively producing sharply demarcated lesions in deep brain structures while preserving function in adjacent nerves. Because of low vascularity--and thus a low microbubble concentration--some large white matter tracts appear to have some natural resistance to this type of ablation compared with gray matter. While future work is needed to develop methods of monitoring the procedure and establishing its safety at deep brain targets, the technique does appear to be a potential solution that allows FUS ablation of deep brain targets while sparing adjacent nerve structures.

Hegde JV, Chen M-H, Mulkern RV, Fennessy FM, D'Amico AV, Tempany CM. Preoperative 3-Tesla Multiparametric Endorectal Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings and the Odds of Upgrading and Upstaging at Radical Prostatectomy in Men with Clinically Localized Prostate Cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2013;85 (2) :e101-7.Abstract

PURPOSE: To investigate whether 3-T esla (3T) multiparametric endorectal MRI (erMRI) can add information to established predictors regarding occult extraprostatic or high-grade prostate cancer (PC) in men with clinically localized PC. METHODS AND MATERIALS: At a single academic medical center, this retrospective study's cohort included 118 men with clinically localized PC who underwent 3T multiparametric erMRI followed by radical prostatectomy, from 2008 to 2011. Multivariable logistic regression analyses in all men and in 100 with favorable-risk PC addressed whether erMRI evidence of T3 disease was associated with prostatectomy T3 or Gleason score (GS) 8-10 (in patients with biopsy GS ≤7) PC, adjusting for age, prostate-specific antigen level, clinical T category, biopsy GS, and percent positive biopsies. RESULTS: The accuracy of erMRI prediction of extracapsular extension and seminal vesicle invasion was 75% and 95%, respectively. For all men, erMRI evidence of a T3 lesion versus T2 was associated with an increased odds of having pT3 disease (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 4.81, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.36-16.98, P=.015) and pGS 8-10 (AOR 5.56, 95% CI 1.10-28.18, P=.038). In the favorable-risk population, these results were AOR 4.14 (95% CI 1.03-16.56), P=.045 and AOR 7.71 (95% CI 1.36-43.62), P=.021, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Three-Tesla multiparametric erMRI in men with favorable-risk PC provides information beyond that contained in known preoperative predictors about the presence of occult extraprostatic and/or high-grade PC. If validated in additional studies, this information can be used to counsel men planning to undergo radical prostatectomy or radiation therapy about the possible need for adjuvant radiation therapy or the utility of adding hormone therapy, respectively.

Qin L, Schmidt EJ, Tse ZTH, Santos J, Hoge WS, Tempany CM, Butts-Pauly K, Dumoulin CL. Prospective Motion Correction using Tracking Coils. Magn Reson Med. 2013;69 (3) :749-59.Abstract

Intracavity imaging coils provide higher signal-to-noise than surface coils and have the potential to provide higher spatial resolution in shorter acquisition times. However, images from these coils suffer from physiologically induced motion artifacts, as both the anatomy and the coils move during image acquisition. We developed prospective motion-correction techniques for intracavity imaging using an array of tracking coils. The system had <50 ms latency between tracking and imaging, so that the images from the intracavity coil were acquired in a frame of reference defined by the tracking array rather than by the system's gradient coils. Two-dimensional gradient-recalled and three-dimensional electrocardiogram-gated inversion-recovery-fast-gradient-echo sequences were tested with prospective motion correction using ex vivo hearts placed on a moving platform simulating both respiratory and cardiac motion. Human abdominal tests were subsequently conducted. The tracking array provided a positional accuracy of 0.7 ± 0.5 mm, 0.6 ± 0.4 mm, and 0.1 ± 0.1 mm along the X, Y, and Z directions at a rate of 20 frames-per-second. The ex vivo and human experiments showed significant image quality improvements for both in-plane and through-plane motion correction, which although not performed in intracavity imaging, demonstrates the feasibility of implementing such a motion-correction system in a future design of combined tracking and intracavity coil.

Jayender J, Gombos E, Chikarmane S, Dabydeen D, Jolesz FA, Vosburgh KG. Statistical Learning Algorithm for in situ and Invasive Breast Carcinoma Segmentation. Comput Med Imaging Graph. 2013;37 (4) :281-92.Abstract

Dynamic Contrast Enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) has proven to be a highly sensitive imaging modality in diagnosing breast cancers. However, analyzing the DCE-MRI is time-consuming and prone to errors due to the large volume of data. Mathematical models to quantify contrast perfusion, such as the black box methods and pharmacokinetic analysis, are inaccurate, sensitive to noise and depend on a large number of external factors such as imaging parameters, patient physiology, arterial input function, and fitting algorithms, leading to inaccurate diagnosis. In this paper, we have developed a novel Statistical Learning Algorithm for Tumor Segmentation (SLATS) based on Hidden Markov Models to auto-segment regions of angiogenesis, corresponding to tumor. The SLATS algorithm has been trained to identify voxels belonging to the tumor class using the time-intensity curve, first and second derivatives of the intensity curves ("velocity" and "acceleration" respectively) and a composite vector consisting of a concatenation of the intensity, velocity and acceleration vectors. The results of SLATS trained for the four vectors has been shown for 22 Invasive Ductal Carcinoma (IDC) and 19 Ductal Carcinoma In Situ (DCIS) cases. The SLATS trained for the velocity tuple shows the best performance in delineating the tumors when compared with the segmentation performed by an expert radiologist and the output of a commercially available software, CADstream.

Vosburgh KG, Golby AJ, Pieper S. Surgery, Virtual Reality, and the Future. Stud Health Technol Inform. 2013;184 :7-13.Abstract

MMVR has provided the leading forum for the multidisciplinary interaction and development of the use of Virtual Reality (VR) techniques in medicine, particularly in surgical practice. Here we look back at the foundations of our field, focusing on the use of VR in Surgery and similar interventional procedures, sum up the current status, and describe the challenges and opportunities going forward.

Schwartz BM, McDannold NJ. Ultrasound Echoes as Biometric Navigators. Magn Reson Med. 2013;69 (4) :1023-33.Abstract

We demonstrate a new method of using ultrasound data to achieve prospective motion compensation in MRI, especially for respiratory motion during interventional MRI procedures in moving organs such as the liver. The method relies on fingerprint-like biometrically distinct ultrasound echo patterns produced by different locations in tissue, which are collated with geometrical information from MRI during a training stage to form a mapping table that relates ultrasound measurements to positions. During prospective correction, the system makes frequent ultrasound measurements and uses the map to determine the corresponding position. Results in motorized linear motion phantoms and freely breathing animals indicate that the system performs well. Apparent motion is reduced by up to 97.8%, and motion artifacts are reduced or eliminated in two-dimensional spoiled gradient-echo images. The motion compensation is sufficient to permit MRI thermometry of focused ultrasound heating during respiratory-like motion, with results similar to those obtained in the absence of motion. This new technique may have applications for MRI thermometry and other dynamic imaging in the abdomen during free breathing.