Knowledge of the exact tumor location and structures at risk in its vicinity are crucial for neurosurgical interventions. Neuronavigation systems support navigation within the patient's brain, based on preoperative MRI (preMRI). However, increasing tissue deformation during the course of tumor resection reduces navigation accuracy based on preMRI. Intraoperative ultrasound (iUS) is therefore used as real-time intraoperative imaging. Registration of preMRI and iUS remains a challenge due to different or varying contrasts in iUS and preMRI. Here, we present an automatic and efficient segmentation of B-mode US images to support the registration process. The falx cerebri and the tentorium cerebelli were identified as examples for central cerebral structures and their segmentations can serve as guiding frame for multi-modal image registration. Segmentations of the falx and tentorium were performed with an average Dice coefficient of 0.74 and an average Hausdorff distance of 12.2 mm. The subsequent registration incorporates these segmentations and increases accuracy, robustness and speed of the overall registration process compared to purely intensity-based registration. For validation an expert manually located corresponding landmarks. Our approach reduces the initial mean Target Registration Error from 16.9 mm to 3.8 mm using our intensity-based registration and to 2.2 mm with our combined segmentation and registration approach. The intensity-based registration reduced the maximum initial TRE from 19.4 mm to 5.6 mm, with the approach incorporating segmentations this is reduced to 3.0 mm. Mean volumetric intensity-based registration of preMRI and iUS took 40.5 s, including segmentations 12.0 s.
The Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System version 2 (PI-RADS v2) was developed with a consensus-based process using a combination of published data, and expert observations and opinions. In the short time since its release, numerous studies have validated the value of PI-RADS v2 but, as expected, have also identified a number of ambiguities and limitations, some of which have been documented in the literature with potential solutions offered. To address these issues, the PI-RADS Steering Committee, again using a consensus-based process, has recommended several modifications to PI-RADS v2, maintaining the framework of assigning scores to individual sequences and using these scores to derive an overall assessment category. This updated version, described in this article, is termed PI-RADS v2.1. It is anticipated that the adoption of these PI-RADS v2.1 modifications will improve inter-reader variability and simplify PI-RADS assessment of prostate magnetic resonance imaging even further. Research on the value and limitations on all components of PI-RADS v2.1 is strongly encouraged.
This multicenter study evaluated the effect of variations in arterial input function (AIF) determination on pharmacokinetic (PK) analysis of dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) data using the shutter-speed model (SSM). Data acquired from eleven prostate cancer patients were shared among nine centers. Each center used a site-specific method to measure the individual AIF from each data set and submitted the results to the managing center. These AIFs, their reference tissue-adjusted variants, and a literature population-averaged AIF, were used by the managing center to perform SSM PK analysis to estimate K (volume transfer rate constant), v (extravascular, extracellular volume fraction), k (efflux rate constant), and τ (mean intracellular water lifetime). All other variables, including the definition of the tumor region of interest and precontrast T values, were kept the same to evaluate parameter variations caused by variations in only the AIF. Considerable PK parameter variations were observed with within-subject coefficient of variation (wCV) values of 0.58, 0.27, 0.42, and 0.24 for K, v, k, and τ, respectively, using the unadjusted AIFs. Use of the reference tissue-adjusted AIFs reduced variations in K and v (wCV = 0.50 and 0.10, respectively), but had smaller effects on k and τ (wCV = 0.39 and 0.22, respectively). k is less sensitive to AIF variation than K, suggesting it may be a more robust imaging biomarker of prostate microvasculature. With low sensitivity to AIF uncertainty, the SSM-unique τ parameter may have advantages over the conventional PK parameters in a longitudinal study.
There are two popular approaches for automated white matter parcellation using diffusion MRI tractography, including fiber clustering strategies that group white matter fibers according to their geometric trajectories and cortical-parcellation-based strategies that focus on the structural connectivity among different brain regions of interest. While multiple studies have assessed test-retest reproducibility of automated white matter parcellations using cortical-parcellation-based strategies, there are no existing studies of test-retest reproducibility of fiber clustering parcellation. In this work, we perform what we believe is the first study of fiber clustering white matter parcellation test-retest reproducibility. The assessment is performed on three test-retest diffusion MRI datasets including a total of 255 subjects across genders, a broad age range (5-82 years), health conditions (autism, Parkinson's disease and healthy subjects), and imaging acquisition protocols (three different sites). A comprehensive evaluation is conducted for a fiber clustering method that leverages an anatomically curated fiber clustering white matter atlas, with comparison to a popular cortical-parcellation-based method. The two methods are compared for the two main white matter parcellation applications of dividing the entire white matter into parcels (i.e., whole brain white matter parcellation) and identifying particular anatomical fiber tracts (i.e., anatomical fiber tract parcellation). Test-retest reproducibility is measured using both geometric and diffusion features, including volumetric overlap (wDice) and relative difference of fractional anisotropy. Our experimental results in general indicate that the fiber clustering method produced more reproducible white matter parcellations than the cortical-parcellation-based method.
Judgement, as one of the core tenets of medicine, relies upon the integration of multilayered data with nuanced decision making. Cancer offers a unique context for medical decisions given not only its variegated forms with evolution of disease but also the need to take into account the individual condition of patients, their ability to receive treatment, and their responses to treatment. Challenges remain in the accurate detection, characterization, and monitoring of cancers despite improved technologies. Radiographic assessment of disease most commonly relies upon visual evaluations, the interpretations of which may be augmented by advanced computational analyses. In particular, artificial intelligence (AI) promises to make great strides in the qualitative interpretation of cancer imaging by expert clinicians, including volumetric delineation of tumors over time, extrapolation of the tumor genotype and biological course from its radiographic phenotype, prediction of clinical outcome, and assessment of the impact of disease and treatment on adjacent organs. AI may automate processes in the initial interpretation of images and shift the clinical workflow of radiographic detection, management decisions on whether or not to administer an intervention, and subsequent observation to a yet to be envisioned paradigm. Here, the authors review the current state of AI as applied to medical imaging of cancer and describe advances in 4 tumor types (lung, brain, breast, and prostate) to illustrate how common clinical problems are being addressed. Although most studies evaluating AI applications in oncology to date have not been vigorously validated for reproducibility and generalizability, the results do highlight increasingly concerted efforts in pushing AI technology to clinical use and to impact future directions in cancer care.
Diagnosis of prostate cancer is based on histological evaluation of tumor architecture using a system known as the 'Gleason score'. This diagnostic paradigm, while the standard of care, is time-consuming, shows intra-observer variability and provides no information about the altered metabolic pathways, which result in altered tissue architecture. Characterization of the molecular composition of prostate cancer and how it changes with respect to the Gleason score (GS) could enable a more objective and faster diagnosis. It may also aid in our understanding of disease onset and progression. In this work, we present mass spectrometry imaging for identification and mapping of lipids and metabolites in prostate tissue from patients with known prostate cancer with GS from 6 to 9. A gradient of changes in the intensity of various lipids was observed, which correlated with increasing GS. Interestingly, these changes were identified in both regions of high tumor cell density, and in regions of tissue that appeared histologically benign, possibly suggestive of pre-cancerous metabolomic changes. A total of 31 lipids, including several phosphatidylcholines, phosphatidic acids, phosphatidylserines, phosphatidylinositols and cardiolipins were detected with higher intensity in GS (4+3) compared with GS (3+4), suggesting they may be markers of prostate cancer aggression. Results obtained through mass spectrometry imaging studies were subsequently correlated with a fast, ambient mass spectrometry method for potential use as a clinical tool to support image-guided prostate biopsy. Implications: In this study we suggest that metabolomic differences between prostate cancers with different Gleason scores can be detected by mass spectrometry imaging.
BACKGROUND: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a major sequela of traumatic brain injury (TBI) in youths. The objective of this study was to examine whether ADHD symptoms are differentially associated with genetic risk and brain structure in youths with and without a history of TBI. METHODS: Medical history, ADHD symptoms, genetic data, and neuroimaging data were obtained from a community sample of youths. ADHD symptom severity was compared between those with and without TBI (TBI n = 418, no TBI n = 3193). The relationship of TBI history, genetic vulnerability, brain structure, and ADHD symptoms was examined by assessing 1) ADHD polygenic score (discovery sample ADHD n = 19,099, control sample n = 34,194), 2) basal ganglia volumes, and 3) fractional anisotropy in the corpus callosum and corona radiata. RESULTS: Youths with TBI reported greater ADHD symptom severity compared with those without TBI. Polygenic score was positively associated with ADHD symptoms in youths without TBI but not in youths with TBI. The negative association between the caudate volume and ADHD symptoms was not moderated by a history of TBI. However, the relationship between ADHD symptoms and structure of the genu of the corpus callosum was negative in youths with TBI and positive in youths without TBI. CONCLUSIONS: The identification of distinct ADHD etiology in youths with TBI provides neurobiological insight into the clinical heterogeneity in the disorder. Results indicate that genetic predisposition to ADHD does not increase the risk for ADHD symptoms associated with TBI. ADHD symptoms associated with TBI may be a result of a mechanical insult rather than neurodevelopmental factors.
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Language task-based functional MRI (fMRI) is increasingly used for presurgical planning in patients with brain lesions. Different paradigms elicit activations of different components of the language network. The aim of this study is to optimize fMRI clinical usage by comparing the effectiveness of three language tasks for language lateralization and localization in a large group of patients with brain lesions.
METHODS: We analyzed fMRI data from a sequential retrospective cohort of 51 patients with brain lesions who underwent presurgical fMRI language mapping. We compared the effectiveness of three language tasks (Antonym Generation, Sentence Completion (SC), and Auditory Naming) for lateralizing language function and for activating cortex within patient-specific regions-of-interest representing eloquent language areas, and assessed the degree of spatial overlap of the areas of activation elicited by each task.
RESULTS: The tasks were similarly effective for lateralizing language within the anterior language areas. The SC task produced higher laterality indices within the posterior language areas and had a significantly higher agreement with the clinical report. Dice coefficients between the task pairs were in the range of .351-.458, confirming substantial variation in the components of the language network activated by each task.
CONCLUSIONS: SC task consistently produced large activations within the dominant hemisphere and was more effective for lateralizing language within the posterior language areas. The low degree of spatial overlap among the tasks strongly supports the practice of using a battery of tasks to help the surgeon to avoid eloquent language areas.
Dispersion, or the frequency dependence of mechanical parameters, is a primary confounding factor in elastography comparisons. We present a study of dispersion in tissue-mimicking gels over a wide frequency band using a combination of ultrasound shear wave elastography (SWE), and a novel torsional vibration rheometry which allows independent mechanical measurement of SWE samples. Frequency-dependent complex shear modulus was measured in homogeneous gelatin hydrogels of two different bloom strengths while controlling for confounding factors such as temperature, water content and material aging. Furthermore, both techniques measured the same physical samples, thereby eliminating possible variation caused by batch-to-batch gel variation, sample geometry differences and boundary artifacts. The wide-band measurement, from 1 to 1800 Hz, captured a 30%-50% increase in the storage modulus and a nearly linear increase with frequency of the loss modulus. The magnitude of the variation suggests that accounting for dispersion is essential for meaningful comparisons between SWE implementations.
Image-guidance improves tissue sampling during biopsy by allowing the physician to visualize the tip and trajectory of the biopsy needle relative to the target in MRI, CT, ultrasound, or other relevant imagery. This paper reports a system for fast automatic needle tip and trajectory localization and visualization in MRI that has been developed and tested in the context of an active clinical research program in prostate biopsy. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported system for this clinical application, and also the first reported system that leverages deep neural networks for segmentation and localization of needles in MRI across biomedical applications. Needle tip and trajectory were annotated on 583 T2-weighted intra-procedural MRI scans acquired after needle insertion for 71 patients who underwent transperenial MRI-targeted biopsy procedure at our institution. The images were divided into two independent training-validation and test sets at the patient level. A deep 3-dimensional fully convolutional neural network model was developed, trained and deployed on these samples. The accuracy of the proposed method, as tested on previously unseen data, was 2.80 mm average in needle tip detection, and 0.98° in needle trajectory angle. An observer study was designed in which independent annotations by a second observer, blinded to the original observer, were compared to the output of the proposed method. The resultant error was comparable to the measured inter-observer concordance, reinforcing the clinical acceptability of the proposed method. The proposed system has the potential for deployment in clinical routine.
PURPOSE: Quantitative parameter maps, as opposed to qualitative grayscale images, may represent the future of diagnostic MRI. A new quantitative MRI method is introduced here that requires a single 3D acquisition, allowing good spatial coverage to be achieved in relatively short scan times. METHODS: A multipathway multi-echo sequence was developed, and at least 3 pathways with 2 TEs were needed to generate T , T , T , B , and B maps. The method required the central k-space region to be sampled twice, with the same sequence but with 2 very different nominal flip angle settings. Consequently, scan time was only slightly longer than that of a single scan. The multipathway multi-echo data were reconstructed into parameter maps, for phantom as well as brain acquisitions, in 5 healthy volunteers at 3 T. Spatial resolution, matrix size, and FOV were 1.2 × 1.0 × 1.2 mm , 160 × 192 × 160, and 19.2 × 19.2 × 19.2 cm (whole brain), acquired in 11.5 minutes with minimal acceleration. Validation was performed against T , T , and T maps calculated from gradient-echo and spin-echo data. RESULTS: In Bland-Altman plots, bias and limits of agreement for T and T results in vivo and in phantom were -2.9/±125.5 ms (T in vivo), -4.8/±20.8 ms (T in vivo), -1.5/±18.1 ms (T in phantom), and -5.3/±7.4 ms (T in phantom), for regions of interest including given brain structures or phantom compartments. Due to relatively high noise levels, the current implementation of the approach may prove more useful for region of interest-based as opposed to pixel-based interpretation. CONCLUSIONS: We proposed a novel approach to quantitatively map MR parameters based on a multipathway multi-echo acquisition.
Recognition of <3 metastases in <2 organs, particularly in cancers with a known predisposition to oligometastatic disease (OMD) (colorectal, prostate, renal, sarcoma and lung), offers the opportunity to focally treat the lesions identified and confers a survival advantage. The reliability with which OMD is identified depends on the sensitivity of the imaging technique used for detection and may be predicted from phenotypic and genetic factors of the primary tumour, which determine metastatic risk. Whole-body or organ-specific imaging to identify oligometastases requires optimization to achieve maximal sensitivity. Metastatic lesions at multiple locations may require a variety of imaging modalities for best visualisation because the optimal image contrast is determined by tumour biology. Newer imaging techniques used for this purpose require validation. Additionally, rationalisation of imaging strategies is needed, particularly with regard to timing of imaging and follow-up studies. This article reviews the current evidence for the use of imaging for recognising OMD and proposes a risk-based roadmap for identifying patients with true OMD, or at risk of metastatic disease likely to be OM.
PURPOSE: To compare the predictive roles of qualitative (PI-RADSv2) and quantitative assessment (ADC metrics), in differentiating Gleason pattern (GP) 3 + 4 from the more aggressive GP 4 + 3 prostate cancer (PCa) using radical prostatectomy (RP) specimen as the reference standard. METHODS: We retrospectively identified treatment-naïve peripheral (PZ) and transitional zone (TZ) Gleason Score 7 PCa patients who underwent multiparametric 3T prostate MRI (DWI with b value of 0,1400 and where unavailable, 0,500) and subsequent RP from 2011 to 2015. For each lesion identified on MRI, a PI-RADSv2 score was assigned by a radiologist blinded to pathology data. A PI-RADSv2 score ≤ 3 was defined as "low risk," a PI-RADSv2 score ≥ 4 as "high risk" for clinically significant PCa. Mean tumor ADC (ADC), ADC of adjacent normal tissue (ADC), and ADC (ADC/ADC) were calculated. Stepwise regression analysis using tumor location, ADC and ADC, b value, low vs. high PI-RADSv2 score was performed to differentiate GP 3 + 4 from 4 + 3. RESULTS: 119 out of 645 cases initially identified met eligibility requirements. 76 lesions were GP 3 + 4, 43 were 4 + 3. ADC was significantly different between the two GP groups (p = 0.001). PI-RADSv2 score ("low" vs. "high") was not significantly different between the two GP groups (p = 0.17). Regression analysis selected ADC (p = 0.03) and ADC (p = 0.0007) as best predictors to differentiate GP 4 + 3 from 3 + 4. Estimated sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of the predictive model in differentiating GP 4 + 3 from 3 + 4 were 37, 82, and 66%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: ADC metrics could differentiate GP 3 + 4 from 4 + 3 PCa with high specificity and moderate accuracy while PI-RADSv2, did not differentiate between these patterns.
Computational methods are crucial for the analysis of diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain. Computational diffusion MRI can provide rich information at many size scales, including local microstructure measures such as diffusion anisotropies or apparent axon diameters, whole-brain connectivity information that describes the brain's wiring diagram and population-based studies in health and disease. Many of the diffusion MRI analyses performed today were not possible five, ten or twenty years ago, due to the requirements for large amounts of computer memory or processor time. In addition, mathematical frameworks had to be developed or adapted from other fields to create new ways to analyze diffusion MRI data. The purpose of this review is to highlight recent computational and statistical advances in diffusion MRI and to put these advances into context by comparison with the more traditional computational methods that are in popular clinical and scientific use. We aim to provide a high-level overview of interest to diffusion MRI researchers, with a more in-depth treatment to illustrate selected computational advances.
This work presents an automatically annotated fiber cluster (AAFC) method to enable identification of anatomically meaningful white matter structures from the whole brain tractography. The proposed method consists of 1) a study-specific whole brain white matter parcellation using a well-established data-driven groupwise fiber clustering pipeline to segment tractography into multiple fiber clusters, and 2) a novel cluster annotation method to automatically assign an anatomical tract annotation to each fiber cluster by employing cortical parcellation information across multiple subjects. The novelty of the AAFC method is that it leverages group-wise information about the fiber clusters, including their fiber geometry and cortical terminations, to compute a tract anatomical label for each cluster in an automated fashion. We demonstrate the proposed AAFC method in an application of investigating white matter abnormality in emotional processing and sensorimotor areas in major depressive disorder (MDD). Seven tracts of interest related to emotional processing and sensorimotor functions are automatically identified using the proposed AAFC method as well as a comparable method that uses a cortical parcellation alone. Experimental results indicate that our proposed method is more consistent in identifying the tracts across subjects and across hemispheres in terms of the number of fibers. In addition, we perform a between-group statistical analysis in 31 MDD patients and 62 healthy subjects on the identified tracts using our AAFC method. We find statistical differences in diffusion measures in local regions within a fiber tract (e.g. 4 fiber clusters within the identified left hemisphere cingulum bundle (consisting of 14 clusters) are significantly different between the two groups), suggesting the ability of our method in identifying potential abnormality specific to subdivisions of a white matter structure.
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to improve the geometric fidelity and spatial resolution of multi-b diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging of the prostate.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: An accelerated segmented diffusion imaging sequence was developed and evaluated in 25 patients undergoing multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging examinations of the prostate. A reduced field of view was acquired using an endorectal coil. The number of sampled diffusion weightings, or b-factors, was increased to allow estimation of tissue perfusion based on the intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) model. Apparent diffusion coefficients measured with the proposed segmented method were compared with those obtained with conventional single-shot echo-planar imaging (EPI).
RESULTS: Compared with single-shot EPI, the segmented method resulted in faster acquisition with 2-fold improvement in spatial resolution and a greater than 3-fold improvement in geometric fidelity. Apparent diffusion coefficient values measured with the novel sequence demonstrated excellent agreement with those obtained from the conventional scan (R = 0.91 for bmax = 500 s/mm and R = 0.89 for bmax = 1400 s/mm). The IVIM perfusion fraction was 4.0% ± 2.7% for normal peripheral zone, 6.6% ± 3.6% for normal transition zone, and 4.4% ± 2.9% for suspected tumor lesions.
CONCLUSIONS: The proposed accelerated segmented prostate diffusion imaging sequence achieved improvements in both spatial resolution and geometric fidelity, along with concurrent quantification of IVIM perfusion.
Background: Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) is the standard for the representation, storage, and communication of medical images and related information. A DICOM file format and communication protocol for pathology have been defined; however, adoption by vendors and in the field is pending. Here, we implemented the essential aspects of the standard and assessed its capabilities and limitations in a multisite, multivendor healthcare network.
Methods: We selected relevant DICOM attributes, developed a program that extracts pixel data and pixel-related metadata, integrated patient and specimen-related metadata, populated and encoded DICOM attributes, and stored DICOM files. We generated the files using image data from four vendor-specific image file formats and clinical metadata from two departments with different laboratory information systems. We validated the generated DICOM files using recognized DICOM validation tools and measured encoding, storage, and access efficiency for three image compression methods. Finally, we evaluated storing, querying, and retrieving data over the web using existing DICOM archive software.
Results: Whole slide image data can be encoded together with relevant patient and specimen-related metadata as DICOM objects. These objects can be accessed efficiently from files or through RESTful web services using existing software implementations. Performance measurements show that the choice of image compression method has a major impact on data access efficiency. For lossy compression, JPEG achieves the fastest compression/decompression rates. For lossless compression, JPEG-LS significantly outperforms JPEG 2000 with respect to data encoding and decoding speed.
Conclusion: Implementation of DICOM allows efficient access to image data as well as associated metadata. By leveraging a wealth of existing infrastructure solutions, the use of DICOM facilitates enterprise integration and data exchange for digital pathology.
Multiparametric Magnetic Resonance Imaging (mpMRI) is widely used for characterizing prostate cancer. Standard of care use of mpMRI in clinic relies on visual interpretation of the images by an expert. mpMRI is also increasingly used as a quantitative imaging biomarker of the disease. Little is known about repeatability of such quantitative measurements, and no test-retest datasets have been available publicly to support investigation of the technical characteristics of the MRI-based quantification in the prostate. Here we present an mpMRI dataset consisting of baseline and repeat prostate MRI exams for 15 subjects, manually annotated to define regions corresponding to lesions and anatomical structures, and accompanied by region-based measurements. This dataset aims to support further investigation of the repeatability of mpMRI-derived quantitative prostate measurements, study of the robustness and reliability of the automated analysis approaches, and to support development and validation of new image analysis techniques. The manuscript can also serve as an example of the use of DICOM for standardized encoding of the image annotation and quantification results.
Therapeutic options for the treatment of glioblastoma remain inadequate despite concerted research efforts in drug development. Therapeutic failure can result from poor permeability of the blood-brain barrier, heterogeneous drug distribution, and development of resistance. Elucidation of relationships among such parameters could enable the development of predictive models of drug response in patients and inform drug development. Complementary analyses were applied to a glioblastoma patient-derived xenograft model in order to quantitatively map distribution and resulting cellular response to the EGFR inhibitor erlotinib. Mass spectrometry images of erlotinib were registered to histology and magnetic resonance images in order to correlate drug distribution with tumor characteristics. Phosphoproteomics and immunohistochemistry were used to assess protein signaling in response to drug, and integrated with transcriptional response using mRNA sequencing. This comprehensive dataset provides simultaneous insight into pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics and indicates that erlotinib delivery to intracranial tumors is insufficient to inhibit EGFR tyrosine kinase signaling.
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: Analysis of dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) magnetic resonance imaging is notable for the variability of calculated parameters. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the level of measurement variability and error/variability due to modeling in DCE magnetic resonance imaging parameters.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two prostate DCE scans were performed on 11 treatment-naïve patients with suspected or confirmed prostate peripheral zone cancer within an interval of less than two weeks. Tumor-suspicious and normal-appearing regions of interest (ROI) in the prostate peripheral zone were segmented. Different Tofts-Kety based models and different arterial input functions, with and without bolus arrival time (BAT) correction, were used to extract pharmacokinetic parameters. The percent repeatability coefficient (%RC) of fitted model parameters K, v, and k was calculated. Paired t-tests comparing parameters in tumor-suspicious ROIs and in normal-appearing tissue evaluated each parameter's sensitivity to pathology.
RESULTS: Although goodness-of-fit criteria favored the four-parameter extended Tofts-Kety model with the BAT correction included, the simplest two-parameter Tofts-Kety model overall yielded the best repeatability scores. The best %RC in the tumor-suspicious ROI was 63% for k, 28% for v and 83% for K . The best p values for discrimination between tissues were p <10 for k and K, and p = 0.11 for v. Addition of the BAT correction to the models did not improve repeatability.
CONCLUSION: The parameter k, using an arterial input functions directly measured from blood signals, was more repeatable than K. Both K and k values were highly discriminatory between healthy and diseased tissues in all cases. The parameter v had high repeatability but could not distinguish the two tissue types.
Patient-mounted needle guide devices for percutaneous ablation are vulnerable to patient motion. The objective of this study is to develop and evaluate a software system for an MRI-compatible patient-mounted needle guide device that can adaptively compensate for displacement of the device due to patient motion using a novel image-based automatic device-to-image registration technique. We have developed a software system for an MRI-compatible patient-mounted needle guide device for percutaneous ablation. It features fully-automated image-based device-to-image registration to track the device position, and a device controller to adjust the needle trajectory to compensate for the displacement of the device. We performed: (a) a phantom study using a clinical MR scanner to evaluate registration performance; (b) simulations using intraoperative time-series MR data acquired in 20 clinical cases of MRI-guided renal cryoablations to assess its impact on motion compensation; and (c) a pilot clinical study in three patients to test its feasibility during the clinical procedure. FRE, TRE, and success rate of device-to-image registration were [Formula: see text] mm, [Formula: see text] mm, and 98.3% for the phantom images. The simulation study showed that the motion compensation reduced the targeting error for needle placement from 8.2 mm to 5.4 mm (p < 0.0005) in patients under general anesthesia (GA), and from 14.4 mm to 10.0 mm ([Formula: see text]) in patients under monitored anesthesia care (MAC). The pilot study showed that the software registered the device successfully in a clinical setting. Our simulation study demonstrated that the software system could significantly improve targeting accuracy in patients treated under both MAC and GA. Intraprocedural image-based device-to-image registration was feasible.
PURPOSE: To develop and evaluate an approach to estimate the respiratory-induced motion of lesions in the chest and abdomen. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The proposed approach uses the motion of an initial reference needle inserted into a moving organ to estimate the lesion (target) displacement that is caused by respiration. The needles position is measured using an inertial measurement unit (IMU) sensor externally attached to the hub of an initially placed reference needle. Data obtained from the IMU sensor and the target motion are used to train a learning-based approach to estimate the position of the moving target. An experimental platform was designed to mimic respiratory motion of the liver. Liver motion profiles of human subjects provided inputs to the experimental platform. Variables including the insertion angle, target depth, target motion velocity and target proximity to the reference needle were evaluated by measuring the error of the estimated target position and processing time. RESULTS: The mean error of estimation of the target position ranged between 0.86 and 1.29 mm. The processing maximum training and testing time was 5 ms which is suitable for real-time target motion estimation using the needle position sensor. CONCLUSION: The external motion of an initially placed reference needle inserted into a moving organ can be used as a surrogate, measurable and accessible signal to estimate in real-time the position of a moving target caused by respiration; this technique could then be used to guide the placement of subsequently inserted needles directly into the target.
Brain shift during tumor resection compromises the spatial validity of registered preoperative imaging data that is critical to image-guided procedures. One current clinical solution to mitigate the effects is to reimage using intraoperative magnetic resonance (iMR) imaging. Although iMR has demonstrated benefits in accounting for preoperative-to-intraoperative tissue changes, its cost and encumbrance have limited its widespread adoption. While iMR will likely continue to be employed for challenging cases, a cost-effective model-based brain shift compensation strategy is desirable as a complementary technology for standard resections. We performed a retrospective study of [Formula: see text] tumor resection cases, comparing iMR measurements with intraoperative brain shift compensation predicted by our model-based strategy, driven by sparse intraoperative cortical surface data. For quantitative assessment, homologous subsurface targets near the tumors were selected on preoperative MR and iMR images. Once rigidly registered, intraoperative shift measurements were determined and subsequently compared to model-predicted counterparts as estimated by the brain shift correction framework. When considering moderate and high shift ([Formula: see text], [Formula: see text] measurements per case), the alignment error due to brain shift reduced from [Formula: see text] to [Formula: see text], representing [Formula: see text] correction. These first steps toward validation are promising for model-based strategies.
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this article is to report our intermediate to long-term outcomes with image-guided percutaneous hepatic tumor cryoablation and to evaluate its technical success, technique efficacy, local tumor progression, and adverse event rate. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between 1998 and 2014, 299 hepatic tumors (243 metastases and 56 primary tumors; mean diameter, 2.5 cm; median diameter, 2.2 cm; range, 0.3-7.8 cm) in 186 patients (95 women; mean age, 60.9 years; range, 29-88 years) underwent cryoablation during 236 procedures using CT (n = 126), MRI (n = 100), or PET/CT (n = 10) guidance. Technical success, technique efficacy at 3 months, local tumor progression (mean follow-up, 2.5 years; range, 2 months to 14.6 years), and adverse event rates were calculated. RESULTS: The technical success rate was 94.6% (279/295). The technique efficacy rate was 89.5% (231/258) and was greater for tumors smaller than 4 cm (93.4%; 213/228) than for larger tumors (60.0%; 18/30) (p < 0.0001). Local tumor progression occurred in 23.3% (60/258) of tumors and was significantly more common after the treatment of tumors 4 cm or larger (63.3%; 19/30) compared with smaller tumors (18.0%; 41/228) (p < 0.0001). Adverse events followed 33.8% (80/236) of procedures and were grade 3-5 in 10.6% (25/236) of cases. Grade 3 or greater adverse events more commonly followed the treatment of larger tumors (19.5%; 8/41) compared with smaller tumors (8.7%; 17/195) (p = 0.04). CONCLUSION: Image-guided percutaneous cryoablation of hepatic tumors is efficacious; however, tumors smaller than 4 cm are more likely to be treated successfully and without an adverse event.
OBJECTIVE: We report nine consecutive percutaneous image-guided cryoablation procedures of head and neck tumors in seven patients (four men and three women; mean age, 68 years; age range, 50-78 years). Ablation of the entire tumor for local control or ablation of a region of tumor for pain relief or preservation of function was achieved in eight of nine procedures. One patient experienced intraprocedural bradycardia, and another developed a neopharyngeal abscess. There were no deaths, permanent neurologic or functional deficits, vascular complications, or adverse cosmetic sequelae due to the procedures. CONCLUSION: Percutaneous image-guided cryoablation offers a potentially less morbid minimally invasive treatment option than salvage head and neck surgery. The complications that we encountered may be avoidable with increased experience. Further work is needed to continue improving the safety and efficacy of cryoablation of head and neck tumors and to continue expanding the use of cryoablation in patients with head and neck tumors that cannot be treated surgically.