Adaptive 4D MR imaging using navigator-based respiratory signal for MRI-guided therapy.


Junichi Tokuda, Shigehiro Morikawa, Hasnine A Haque, Tetsuji Tsukamoto, Kiyoshi Matsumiya, Hongen Liao, Ken Masamune, and Takeyoshi Dohi. 2008. “Adaptive 4D MR imaging using navigator-based respiratory signal for MRI-guided therapy.” Magn Reson Med, 59, 5, Pp. 1051-61. Copy at


For real-time 3D visualization of respiratory organ motion for MRI-guided therapy, a new adaptive 4D MR imaging method based on navigator echo and multiple gating windows was developed. This method was designed to acquire a time series of volumetric 3D images of a cyclically moving organ, enabling therapy to be guided by synchronizing the 4D image with the actual organ motion in real time. The proposed method was implemented in an open-configuration 0.5T clinical MR scanner. To evaluate the feasibility and determine optimal imaging conditions, studies were conducted with a phantom, volunteers, and a patient. In the phantom study the root mean square (RMS) position error in the 4D image of the cyclically moving phantom was 1.9 mm and the imaging time was approximately 10 min when the 4D image had six frames. In the patient study, 4D images were successfully acquired under clinical conditions and a liver tumor was discriminated in the series of frames. The image quality was affected by the relations among the encoding direction, the slice orientation, and the direction of motion of the target organ. In conclusion, this study has shown that the proposed method is feasible and capable of providing a real-time dynamic 3D atlas for surgical navigation with sufficient accuracy and image quality.