Intraoperative and interventional MRI: recommendations for a safe environment.


Joachim Kettenbach, Daniel F Kacher, Angela R Kanan, Bill Rostenberg, Janice Fairhurst, Alfred Stadler, K Kienreich, and Ferenc A Jolesz. 2006. “Intraoperative and interventional MRI: recommendations for a safe environment.” Minim Invasive Ther Allied Technol, 15, 2, Pp. 53-64. Copy at


In this paper we report on current experience and review magnetic resonance safety protocols and literature in order to define practices surrounding MRI-guided interventional and surgical procedures. Direct experience, the American College of Radiology White paper on MR Safety, and various other sources are summarized. Additional recommendations for interventional and surgical MRI-guided procedures cover suite location/layout, accessibility, safety policy, personnel training, and MRI compatibility issues. Further information is freely available for sites to establish practices to minimize risk and ensure safety. Interventional and intraoperative MRI is emerging from its infancy, with twelve years since the advent of the field and well over 10,000 cases collectively performed. Thus, users of interventional and intraoperative MRI should adapt guidelines utilizing universal standards and terminology and establish a site-specific policy. With policy enforcement and proper training, the interventional and intraoperative MR imaging suite can be a safe and effective environment.