Traditional ultrasound imaging methods rely on the bandwidth and center frequency of transduction to achieve axial and radial image resolution, respectively. In this study, a new modality for spatially localizing scattering targets in a two-dimensional field is presented. In this method, the bandwidth of field excitation is high, and the center frequency is lowered such that the corresponding wavelengths are substantially larger than the target profiles. Furthermore, full two-dimensional field measurements are obtained with single send-receive sequences, demonstrating a substantial simplification of the traditional scanning techniques. Field reconstruction is based on temporal-spectral cross-correlations between measured backscatter data and a library of region of interest (ROI) backscatter data measured a priori. The transducer design is based upon a wedge-shaped geometry, which was shown to yield spatially frequency-separated bandwidths of up to 156% with center frequencies of 1.38 MHz. Initial results with these send-and-receive transducer parameters and cylindrical reflection targets in a 10-mm x 10-mm ROI demonstrate two-dimensional target localization to within 0.5 mm. Spatial localization of point scatterers is demonstrated for single and multiple scattering sites.
We present software engineering methods to provide free open-source software for MR-guided therapy. We report that graphical representation of the surgical tools, interconnectively with the tracking device, patient-to-image registration, and MRI-based thermal mapping are crucial components of MR-guided therapy in sharing such software. Software process includes a network-based distribution mechanism by multi-platform compiling tool CMake, CVS, quality assurance software DART. We developed six procedures in four separate clinical sites using proposed software engineering and process, and found the proposed method is feasible to facilitate multicenter clinical trial of MR-guided therapies. Our future studies include use of the software in non-MR-guided therapies.
System development for image-guided therapy (IGT), or image-guided interventions (IGI), continues to be an area of active interest across academic and industry groups. This is an emerging field that is growing rapidly: major academic institutions and medical device manufacturers have produced IGT technologies that are in routine clinical use, dozens of high-impact publications are published in well regarded journals each year, and several small companies have successfully commercialized sophisticated IGT systems. In meetings between IGT investigators over the last two years, a consensus has emerged that several key areas must be addressed collaboratively by the community to reach the next level of impact and efficiency in IGT research and development to improve patient care. These meetings culminated in a two-day workshop that brought together several academic and industrial leaders in the field today. The goals of the workshop were to identify gaps in the engineering infrastructure available to IGT researchers, develop the role of research funding agencies and the recently established US-based National Center for Image Guided Therapy (NCIGT), and ultimately to facilitate the transfer of technology among research centers that are sponsored by the National Institutes of Health (NIH). Workshop discussions spanned many of the current challenges in the development and deployment of new IGT systems. Key challenges were identified in a number of areas, including: validation standards; workflows, use-cases, and application requirements; component reusability; and device interface standards. This report elaborates on these key points and proposes research challenges that are to be addressed by a joint effort between academic, industry, and NIH participants.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of a computer-controlled ultrasound pulser-receiver system incorporating a shear mode technique for transskull fluid detection. The presence of fluid in the sinuses of an ex vivo human skull was examined using a pulse-echo method by transmitting an ultrasound beam through the maxilla bone toward the back wall on the other side of the sinus cavity. The pulser was programmed to generate bipolar pulse trains with 5 cycles at a frequency of 1 MHz, repetition frequency of about 20 Hz, and amplitude of 100 V to drive a 1-MHz piezoelectric transducer. Shear and longitudinal waves in the maxilla bone were produced by adjusting the bone surface incident angle to 45 degrees and 0 degrees, respectively. Computer tomography (CT) scans of the skull were performed to verify the ultrasound experiment. Using the shear mode technique, the echo waveform clearly distinguishes the presence of fluid, and the estimated distance of the ultrasound traveled in the sinus is consistent with the measurement from the CT images. Contrarily, using the longitudinal mode, no detectable back wall echo was observed under the same conditions. As a conclusion, this study demonstrated that the proposed pulser-receiver system with the shear mode technique is promising for transskull fluid detecting, such as mucus in a sinus.
This paper describes a novel image-based method for tracking robotic mechanisms and interventional devices during Magnetic Resonance Image (MRI)-guided procedures. It takes advantage of the multi-planar imaging capabilities of MRI to optimally image a set of localizing fiducials for passive motion tracking in the image coordinate frame. The imaging system is servoed to adaptively position the scan plane based on automatic detection and localization of fiducial artifacts directly from the acquired image stream. This closed-loop control system has been implemented using an open-source software framework and currently operates with GE MRI scanners. Accuracy and performance were evaluated in experiments, the results of which are presented here.
Functional brain mapping may be useful for both preoperative planning and intraoperative neurosurgical decision making. "Gold standard" functional studies such as direct electrical stimulation and recording are complemented by newer, less invasive techniques such as functional magnetic resonance imaging. Less invasive techniques allow more areas of the brain to be mapped in more subjects (including healthy subjects) more often (including pre- and postoperatively). Expansion of the armamentarium of tools allows convergent evidence from multiple brain mapping techniques to bear on pre- and intraoperative decision making. Functional imaging techniques are used to map motor, sensory, language, and memory areas in neurosurgical patients with conditions as diverse as brain tumors, vascular lesions, and epilepsy. In the future, coregistration of high resolution anatomic and physiological data from multiple complementary sources will be used to plan more neurosurgical procedures, including minimally invasive procedures. Along the way, new insights on fundamental processes such as the biology of tumors and brain plasticity are likely to be revealed.
BACKGROUND: The authors prospectively evaluated the late gastrointestinal (GI) and genitourinary (GU) toxicity and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) control of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-guided brachytherapy used as salvage for radiation therapy (RT) failure. METHODS: From October 2000 to October 2005, 25 men with a rising PSA level and biopsy-proven, intraprostatic cancer at least 2 years after initial RT (external beam in 13 men and brachytherapy in 12 men) who had favorable clinical features (Gleason score < or =7, PSA < 10 ng/mL, negative pelvic and bone imaging studies), received MRI-guided salvage brachytherapy to a minimum peripheral dose of 137 gray on a phase 1/2 protocol. Estimates of toxicity and cancer control were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. RESULTS: The median follow-up was 47 months. The 4-year estimate of grade 3 or 4 GI or GU toxicity was 30%, and 13% of patients required a colostomy and/or urostomy to repair a fistula. An interval < 4.5 years between RT courses was associated with both outcomes with a hazard ratio of 12 (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.4-100; P = .02) for grade 3 or 4 toxicity and 25 (95% CI, 1.1-529; P = .04) for colostomy and/or urostomy. PSA control (nadir +2 definition) was 70% at 4 years. CONCLUSIONS: The current results indicated that MRI-guided salvage brachytherapy in men who are selected based on presenting characteristics and post-failure PSA kinetics can achieve high PSA control rates, although complications requiring surgical intervention may occur in 10% to 15% of patients. Prospective randomized studies are needed to characterize the relative cancer control and toxicity after all forms of salvage local therapy.
OBJECTIVE: The usefulness of neurosurgical navigation with current visualizations is seriously compromised by brain shift, which inevitably occurs during the course of the operation, significantly degrading the precise alignment between the pre-operative MR data and the intra-operative shape of the brain. Our objectives were (i) to evaluate the feasibility of non-rigid registration that compensates for the brain deformations within the time constraints imposed by neurosurgery, and (ii) to create augmented reality visualizations of critical structural and functional brain regions during neurosurgery using pre-operatively acquired fMRI and DT-MRI. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eleven consecutive patients with supratentorial gliomas were included in our study. All underwent surgery at our intra-operative MR imaging-guided therapy facility and have tumors in eloquent brain areas (e.g. precentral gyrus and cortico-spinal tract). Functional MRI and DT-MRI, together with MPRAGE and T2w structural MRI were acquired at 3 T prior to surgery. SPGR and T2w images were acquired with a 0.5 T magnet during each procedure. Quantitative assessment of the alignment accuracy was carried out and compared with current state-of-the-art systems based only on rigid registration. RESULTS: Alignment between pre-operative and intra-operative datasets was successfully carried out during surgery for all patients. Overall, the mean residual displacement remaining after non-rigid registration was 1.82 mm. There is a statistically significant improvement in alignment accuracy utilizing our non-rigid registration in comparison to the currently used technology (p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: We were able to achieve intra-operative rigid and non-rigid registration of (1) pre-operative structural MRI with intra-operative T1w MRI; (2) pre-operative fMRI with intra-operative T1w MRI, and (3) pre-operative DT-MRI with intra-operative T1w MRI. The registration algorithms as implemented were sufficiently robust and rapid to meet the hard real-time constraints of intra-operative surgical decision making. The validation experiments demonstrate that we can accurately compensate for the deformation of the brain and thus can construct an augmented reality visualization to aid the surgeon.
In the United States, unenhanced CT is currently the most common imaging modality used to guide percutaneous biopsy and tumor ablation. The majority of liver tumors such as hepatocellular carcinomas are visible on contrast-enhanced CT or MRI obtained prior to the procedure. Yet, these tumors may not be visible or may have poor margin conspicuity on unenhanced CT images acquired during the procedure. Non-rigid registration has been used to align images accurately, even in the presence of organ motion. However, to date, it has not been used clinically for radiofrequency ablation (RFA), since it requires significant computational infrastructure and often these methods are not sufficient robust. We have already introduced a novel finite element based method (FEM) that is demonstrated to achieve good accuracy and robustness for the problem of brain shift in neurosurgery. In this current study, we adapt it to fuse pre-procedural MRI with intra-procedural CT of liver. We also compare its performance with conventional rigid registration and two non-rigid registration methods: b-spline and demons on 13 retrospective datasets from patients that underwent RFA at our institution. FEM non-rigid registration technique was significantly better than rigid (p < 10-5), non-rigid b-spline (p < 10-4) and demons (p < 10-4) registration techniques. The results of our study indicate that this novel technology may be used to optimize placement of RF applicator during CT-guided ablations.
In this paper a comprehensive framework for pre-operative planning, procedural skill training, and intraoperative navigation is presented. The goal of this system is to integrate surgical simulation with surgical planning in order to improve the individual treatment of patients. Various surgical approaches and new, more complex procedures can be assessed using a safe and objective platform that will allow the physicians to explore and discuss possible risks and benefits prior to the intervention. A simulation environment extends the pre-operative planning in a natural way, as it allows for direct evaluation of the surgical approach envisioned for each case. In addition, by providing intraoperative navigation based on this simulation, surgeons can carry out the previously optimized plan with higher precision and greater confidence.
BACKGROUND: Mapping functional areas of the brain is important for planning tumour resections. With the increased use of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) for presurgical planning, there is a need to validate that fMRI activation mapping is consistent with the mapping obtained during surgery using direct electrocortical stimulation (DECS). METHODS: A quantitative comparison of DECS and fMRI mapping techniques was performed, using a patient-specific conductivity model to find the current distribution resulting from each stimulation site. The resulting DECS stimulation map was compared to the fMRI activation map, using the maximal Dice similarity coefficient (MDSC). RESULTS: Our results show some agreement between these two mapping techniques--the stimulation site with the largest MOSC was the only site that demonstrated intra-operative effect. CONCLUSIONS: There is a substantial effort to improve the techniques used to map functional areas, particularly using fMRI. It seems likely that fMRI will eventually provide a valid non-invasive means for functional mapping.
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the role of the combination of endorectal coil and external multicoil array magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the management of prostate cancer and predicting the surgical margin status in a single-surgeon practice. METHODS: We reviewed all patients referred by a single surgeon from January 1993 to May 2002 for staging prostate MRI before selecting treatment. All MRI examinations were performed using 1.5T (Signa, GE Medical Systems) with a combination of endorectal and pelvic multicoil array. The tumor size, stage, and total gland volume on MRI, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level, and Gleason score were all compared with the pathologic stage and diagnosis of positive surgical margins (PSMs). RESULTS: A total of 232 patients were evaluated, of whom 110 underwent radical prostatectomy, all performed by one surgeon (group 1), and 122 did not (group 2). The results showed that MRI stage, PSA level, and age were all significantly different (P <0.001). In group 1, the results showed a high specificity (99%) and accuracy (91%) for MRI staging of T3 cancer. The postoperative follow-up (median 4.5 years) revealed that 90% of men had PSA levels of less than 0.1 ng/mL. The PSM rate was 16%. No significant difference was found on MRI between the PSM group and non-PSM group. A single tumor length greater than 1.8 cm was the cutpoint above which PSMs were found (P = 0.002). CONCLUSIONS: The results of our study have shown that the combined use of clinical data and endorectal MRI can help optimize patient treatment and selection for surgery and, in a single surgeon's practice, lead to successful outcomes.
A line-scan echo planar spectroscopic imaging (LSEPSI) sequence was used to serially acquire spectra from 4,096 voxels every 6.4 s throughout the breasts of nine female subjects in vivo. Data from the serial acquisitions were analyzed to determine the potential of the technique to characterize temperature changes using either the water frequency alone or the water-methylene frequency difference. Fluctuations of the apparent temperature change under these conditions of no heating were smallest using the water-methylene frequency difference, most probably due to a substantial reduction of motion effects both within and without the imaged plane. The approach offers considerable advantages over other methods for temperature change monitoring in the breast with magnetic resonance but suffers from some limitations, including the unavailability of lipid and water resonances in some voxels as well as a surprisingly large distribution of water-methylene frequency differences, which may preclude absolute temperature measurement.
PURPOSE: To quantify needle placement accuracy of magnetic resonance image (MRI)-guided core needle biopsy of the prostate. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 10 biopsies were performed with 18-gauge (G) core biopsy needle via a percutaneous transperineal approach. Needle placement error was assessed by comparing the coordinates of preplanned targets with the needle tip measured from the intraprocedural coherent gradient echo images. The source of these errors was subsequently investigated by measuring displacement caused by needle deflection and needle susceptibility artifact shift in controlled phantom studies. Needle placement error due to misalignment of the needle template guide was also evaluated. RESULTS: The mean and standard deviation (SD) of errors in targeted biopsies was 6.5 +/- 3.5 mm. Phantom experiments showed significant placement error due to needle deflection with a needle with an asymmetrically beveled tip (3.2-8.7 mm depending on tissue type) but significantly smaller error with a symmetrical bevel (0.6-1.1 mm). Needle susceptibility artifacts observed a shift of 1.6 +/- 0.4 mm from the true needle axis. Misalignment of the needle template guide contributed an error of 1.5 +/- 0.3 mm. CONCLUSION: Needle placement error was clinically significant in MRI-guided biopsy for diagnosis of prostate cancer. Needle placement error due to needle deflection was the most significant cause of error, especially for needles with an asymmetrical bevel.
OBJECTIVE: Accurate biopsy sampling of the suspected lesions is critical for the diagnosis and clinical management of prostate cancer. Transperineal in-bore MRI-guided prostate biopsy (tpMRgBx) is a targeted biopsy technique that was shown to be safe, efficient, and accurate. Our goal was to develop an open source software platform to support evaluation, refinement, and translation of this biopsy approach. METHODS: We developed SliceTracker, a 3D Slicer extension to support tpMRgBx. We followed modular design of the implementation to enable customization of the interface and interchange of image segmentation and registration components to assess their effect on the processing time, precision, and accuracy of the biopsy needle placement. The platform and supporting documentation were developed to enable the use of software by an operator with minimal technical training to facilitate translation. Retrospective evaluation studied registration accuracy, effect of the prostate segmentation approach, and re-identification time of biopsy targets. Prospective evaluation focused on the total procedure time and biopsy targeting error (BTE). RESULTS: Evaluation utilized data from 73 retrospective and ten prospective tpMRgBx cases. Mean landmark registration error for retrospective evaluation was 1.88 ± 2.63 mm, and was not sensitive to the approach used for prostate gland segmentation. Prospectively, we observed target re-identification time of 4.60 ± 2.40 min and BTE of 2.40 ± 0.98 mm. CONCLUSION: SliceTracker is modular and extensible open source platform for supporting image processing aspects of the tpMRgBx procedure. It has been successfully utilized to support clinical research procedures at our site.
Patient-mounted needle guide devices for percutaneous ablation are vulnerable to patient motion. The objective of this study is to develop and evaluate a software system for an MRI-compatible patient-mounted needle guide device that can adaptively compensate for displacement of the device due to patient motion using a novel image-based automatic device-to-image registration technique. We have developed a software system for an MRI-compatible patient-mounted needle guide device for percutaneous ablation. It features fully-automated image-based device-to-image registration to track the device position, and a device controller to adjust the needle trajectory to compensate for the displacement of the device. We performed: (a) a phantom study using a clinical MR scanner to evaluate registration performance; (b) simulations using intraoperative time-series MR data acquired in 20 clinical cases of MRI-guided renal cryoablations to assess its impact on motion compensation; and (c) a pilot clinical study in three patients to test its feasibility during the clinical procedure. FRE, TRE, and success rate of device-to-image registration were [Formula: see text] mm, [Formula: see text] mm, and 98.3% for the phantom images. The simulation study showed that the motion compensation reduced the targeting error for needle placement from 8.2 mm to 5.4 mm (p < 0.0005) in patients under general anesthesia (GA), and from 14.4 mm to 10.0 mm ([Formula: see text]) in patients under monitored anesthesia care (MAC). The pilot study showed that the software registered the device successfully in a clinical setting. Our simulation study demonstrated that the software system could significantly improve targeting accuracy in patients treated under both MAC and GA. Intraprocedural image-based device-to-image registration was feasible.
PURPOSE: To develop and evaluate an approach to estimate the respiratory-induced motion of lesions in the chest and abdomen. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The proposed approach uses the motion of an initial reference needle inserted into a moving organ to estimate the lesion (target) displacement that is caused by respiration. The needles position is measured using an inertial measurement unit (IMU) sensor externally attached to the hub of an initially placed reference needle. Data obtained from the IMU sensor and the target motion are used to train a learning-based approach to estimate the position of the moving target. An experimental platform was designed to mimic respiratory motion of the liver. Liver motion profiles of human subjects provided inputs to the experimental platform. Variables including the insertion angle, target depth, target motion velocity and target proximity to the reference needle were evaluated by measuring the error of the estimated target position and processing time. RESULTS: The mean error of estimation of the target position ranged between 0.86 and 1.29 mm. The processing maximum training and testing time was 5 ms which is suitable for real-time target motion estimation using the needle position sensor. CONCLUSION: The external motion of an initially placed reference needle inserted into a moving organ can be used as a surrogate, measurable and accessible signal to estimate in real-time the position of a moving target caused by respiration; this technique could then be used to guide the placement of subsequently inserted needles directly into the target.
Brain shift during tumor resection compromises the spatial validity of registered preoperative imaging data that is critical to image-guided procedures. One current clinical solution to mitigate the effects is to reimage using intraoperative magnetic resonance (iMR) imaging. Although iMR has demonstrated benefits in accounting for preoperative-to-intraoperative tissue changes, its cost and encumbrance have limited its widespread adoption. While iMR will likely continue to be employed for challenging cases, a cost-effective model-based brain shift compensation strategy is desirable as a complementary technology for standard resections. We performed a retrospective study of [Formula: see text] tumor resection cases, comparing iMR measurements with intraoperative brain shift compensation predicted by our model-based strategy, driven by sparse intraoperative cortical surface data. For quantitative assessment, homologous subsurface targets near the tumors were selected on preoperative MR and iMR images. Once rigidly registered, intraoperative shift measurements were determined and subsequently compared to model-predicted counterparts as estimated by the brain shift correction framework. When considering moderate and high shift ([Formula: see text], [Formula: see text] measurements per case), the alignment error due to brain shift reduced from [Formula: see text] to [Formula: see text], representing [Formula: see text] correction. These first steps toward validation are promising for model-based strategies.
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this article is to report our intermediate to long-term outcomes with image-guided percutaneous hepatic tumor cryoablation and to evaluate its technical success, technique efficacy, local tumor progression, and adverse event rate. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between 1998 and 2014, 299 hepatic tumors (243 metastases and 56 primary tumors; mean diameter, 2.5 cm; median diameter, 2.2 cm; range, 0.3-7.8 cm) in 186 patients (95 women; mean age, 60.9 years; range, 29-88 years) underwent cryoablation during 236 procedures using CT (n = 126), MRI (n = 100), or PET/CT (n = 10) guidance. Technical success, technique efficacy at 3 months, local tumor progression (mean follow-up, 2.5 years; range, 2 months to 14.6 years), and adverse event rates were calculated. RESULTS: The technical success rate was 94.6% (279/295). The technique efficacy rate was 89.5% (231/258) and was greater for tumors smaller than 4 cm (93.4%; 213/228) than for larger tumors (60.0%; 18/30) (p < 0.0001). Local tumor progression occurred in 23.3% (60/258) of tumors and was significantly more common after the treatment of tumors 4 cm or larger (63.3%; 19/30) compared with smaller tumors (18.0%; 41/228) (p < 0.0001). Adverse events followed 33.8% (80/236) of procedures and were grade 3-5 in 10.6% (25/236) of cases. Grade 3 or greater adverse events more commonly followed the treatment of larger tumors (19.5%; 8/41) compared with smaller tumors (8.7%; 17/195) (p = 0.04). CONCLUSION: Image-guided percutaneous cryoablation of hepatic tumors is efficacious; however, tumors smaller than 4 cm are more likely to be treated successfully and without an adverse event.