Publications

2008
Xiao Z, Hoge WS, Mulkern RV, Zhao L, Hu G, Kyriakos WE. Comparison of Parallel MRI Reconstruction Methods for Accelerated 3D Fast Spin-echo Imaging. Magn Reson Med. 2008;60 (3) :650-60.Abstract

Parallel MRI (pMRI) achieves imaging acceleration by partially substituting gradient-encoding steps with spatial information contained in the component coils of the acquisition array. Variable-density subsampling in pMRI was previously shown to yield improved two-dimensional (2D) imaging in comparison to uniform subsampling, but has yet to be used routinely in clinical practice. In an effort to reduce acquisition time for 3D fast spin-echo (3D-FSE) sequences, this work explores a specific nonuniform sampling scheme for 3D imaging, subsampling along two phase-encoding (PE) directions on a rectilinear grid. We use two reconstruction methods-2D-GRAPPA-Operator and 2D-SPACE RIP-and present a comparison between them. We show that high-quality images can be reconstructed using both techniques. To evaluate the proposed sampling method and reconstruction schemes, results via simulation, phantom study, and in vivo 3D human data are shown. We find that fewer artifacts can be seen in the 2D-SPACE RIP reconstructions than in 2D-GRAPPA-Operator reconstructions, with comparable reconstruction times.

Archip N, Clatz O, Whalen S, Dimaio SP, Black PM, Jolesz FA, Golby AJ, Warfield SK. Compensation of geometric distortion effects on intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging for enhanced visualization in image-guided neurosurgery. Neurosurgery. 2008;62 (3 Suppl 1) :209-15; discussion 215-6.Abstract

OBJECTIVE: Preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), functional MRI, diffusion tensor MRI, magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and positron-emission tomographic scans may be aligned to intraoperative MRI to enhance visualization and navigation during image-guided neurosurgery. However, several effects (both machine- and patient-induced distortions) lead to significant geometric distortion of intraoperative MRI. Therefore, a precise alignment of these image modalities requires correction of the geometric distortion. We propose and evaluate a novel method to compensate for the geometric distortion of intraoperative 0.5-T MRI in image-guided neurosurgery. METHODS: In this initial pilot study, 11 neurosurgical procedures were prospectively enrolled. The scheme used to correct the geometric distortion is based on a nonrigid registration algorithm introduced by our group. This registration scheme uses image features to establish correspondence between images. It estimates a smooth geometric distortion compensation field by regularizing the displacements estimated at the correspondences. A patient-specific linear elastic material model is used to achieve the regularization. The geometry of intraoperative images (0.5 T) is changed so that the images match the preoperative MRI scans (3 T). RESULTS: We compared the alignment between preoperative and intraoperative imaging using 1) only rigid registration without correction of the geometric distortion, and 2) rigid registration and compensation for the geometric distortion. We evaluated the success of the geometric distortion correction algorithm by measuring the Hausdorff distance between boundaries in the 3-T and 0.5-T MRIs after rigid registration alone and with the addition of geometric distortion correction of the 0.5-T MRI. Overall, the mean magnitude of the geometric distortion measured on the intraoperative images is 10.3 mm with a minimum of 2.91 mm and a maximum of 21.5 mm. The measured accuracy of the geometric distortion compensation algorithm is 1.93 mm. There is a statistically significant difference between the accuracy of the alignment of preoperative and intraoperative images, both with and without the correction of geometric distortion (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: The major contributions of this study are 1) identification of geometric distortion of intraoperative images relative to preoperative images, 2) measurement of the geometric distortion, 3) application of nonrigid registration to compensate for geometric distortion during neurosurgery, 4) measurement of residual distortion after geometric distortion correction, and 5) phantom study to quantify geometric distortion.

McDannold N, Tempany CM, Jolesz FA, Hynynen K. Evaluation of Referenceless Thermometry in MRI-guided Focused Ultrasound Surgery of Uterine Fibroids. J Magn Reson Imaging. 2008;28 (4) :1026-32.Abstract

PURPOSE: To clinically assess a previously described method (Rieke et.al., Magn Reson Med 2004) to produce more motion-robust MRI-based temperature images using data acquired during MRI-guided focused ultrasound surgery (MRgFUS) of uterine fibroids. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The method ("referenceless thermometry") uses surface fitting in nonheated regions of individual phase images to extrapolate and then remove background phase variations that are unrelated to temperature changes. We tested this method using images from 100 sonications selected from 33 patient MRgFUS treatments. Temperature measurements and thermal dose contours estimated with the referenceless method were compared with those produced with the standard phase-difference technique. Fitting accuracy and noise level were also measured. RESULTS: In 92/100 sonications, the difference between the two measurements was less than 3 degrees C. The average difference in the measurements was 1.5 +/- 1.4 degrees C. Small motion artifacts were observed in the phase-difference imaging when the difference was greater than 3 degrees C. The method failed in two cases. The mean absolute error in the surface fit in baseline images corresponded to a temperature error of 0.8 +/- 1.4 degrees C. The noise level was approximately 40% lower than the phase-difference method. Thermal dose contours calculated from the two methods agreed well on average. CONCLUSION: Based on the small error when compared with the standard technique, this method appears to be adequate for temperature monitoring of MRgFUS in uterine fibroids and may prove useful for monitoring temperature changes in moving organs.

Tie Y, Whalen S, Suarez RO, Golby AJ. Group Independent Component Analysis of Language fMRI from Word Generation Tasks. Neuroimage. 2008;42 (3) :1214-25.Abstract

Language fMRI has been used to study brain regions involved in language processing and has been applied to pre-surgical language mapping. However, in order to provide clinicians with optimal information, the sensitivity and specificity of language fMRI needs to be improved. Type II error of failing to reach statistical significance when the language activations are genuinely present may be particularly relevant to pre-surgical planning, by falsely indicating low surgical risk in areas where no activations are shown. Furthermore, since the execution of language paradigms involves cognitive processes other than language function per se, the conventional general linear model (GLM) method may identify non-language-specific activations. In this study, we assessed an exploratory approach, independent component analysis (ICA), as a potential complementary method to the inferential GLM method in language mapping applications. We specifically investigated whether this approach might reduce type II error as well as generate more language-specific maps. Fourteen right-handed healthy subjects were studied with fMRI during two word generation tasks. A similarity analysis across tasks was proposed to select components of interest. Union analysis was performed on the language-specific components to increase sensitivity, and conjunction analysis was performed to identify language areas more likely to be essential. Compared with GLM, ICA identified more activated voxels in the putative language areas, and signals from other sources were isolated into different components. Encouraging results from one brain tumor patient are also presented. ICA may be used as a complementary tool to GLM in improving pre-surgical language mapping.

Maddah M, Zöllei L, Grimson EWL, Westin C-F, Wells WM. A Mathematical Framework for Incorporating Anatomical Knowledge in DT-MRI Analysis. Proc IEEE Int Symp Biomed Imaging. 2008;4543943 :105-8.Abstract

We propose a Bayesian approach to incorporate anatomical information in the clustering of fiber trajectories. An expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm is used to cluster the trajectories, in which an atlas serves as the prior on the labels. The atlas guides the clustering algorithm and makes the resulting bundles anatomically meaningful. In addition, it provides the seed points for the tractography and initial settings of the EM algorithm. The proposed approach provides a robust and automated tool for tract-oriented analysis both in a single subject and over a population.

Fennessy FM, Tuncali K, Morrison PR, Tempany CM. MR imaging-guided interventions in the genitourinary tract: an evolving concept. Radiol Clin North Am. 2008;46 (1) :149-66.Abstract

MR imaging-guided interventions are well established in routine patient care in many parts of the world. There are many approaches, depending on magnet design and clinical need, based on MR imaging providing excellent inherent tissue contrast without ionizing radiation risk for patients. MR imaging-guided minimally invasive therapeutic procedures have advantages over conventional surgical procedures. In the genitourinary tract, MR imaging guidance has a role in tumor detection, localization, and staging and can provide accurate image guidance for minimally invasive procedures. The advent of molecular and metabolic imaging and use of higher strength magnets likely will improve diagnostic accuracy and allow targeted therapy to maximize disease control and minimize side effects.

Tempany CM, Straus S, Hata N, Haker S. MR-guided prostate interventions. J Magn Reson Imaging. 2008;27 (2) :356-67.Abstract

In this article the current issues of diagnosis and detection of prostate cancer are reviewed. The limitations for current techniques are highlighted and some possible solutions with MR imaging and MR-guided biopsy approaches are reviewed. There are several different biopsy approaches under investigation. These include transperineal open magnet approaches to closed-bore 1.5T transrectal biopsies. The imaging, image processing, and tracking methods are also discussed. In the arena of therapy, MR guidance has been used in conjunction with radiation methods, either brachytherapy or external delivery. The principles of the radiation treatment, the toxicities, and use of images are outlined. The future role of imaging and image-guided interventions lie with providing a noninvasive surrogate for cancer surveillance or monitoring treatment response. The shift to minimally invasive focal therapies has already begun and will be very exciting when MR-guided focused ultrasound surgery reaches its full potential.

Fischer GS, Iordachita I, Csoma C, Tokuda J, Mewes PW, Tempany CM, Hata N, Fichtinger G. Pneumatically Operated MRI-Compatible Needle Placement Robot for Prostate Interventions. IEEE Int Conf Robot Autom. 2008;2008 :2489-95.Abstract

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) has potential to be a superior medical imaging modality for guiding and monitoring prostatic interventions. The strong magnetic field prevents the use of conventional mechatronics and the confined physical space makes it extremely challenging to access the patient. We have designed a robotic assistant system that overcomes these difficulties and promises safe and reliable intra-prostatic needle placement inside closed high-field MRI scanners. The robot performs needle insertion under real-time 3T MR image guidance; workspace requirements, MR compatibility, and workflow have been evaluated on phantoms. The paper explains the robot mechanism and controller design and presents results of preliminary evaluation of the system.

Lénárd ZM, McDannold N, Fennessy FM, Stewart EA, Jolesz FA, Hynynen K, Tempany CM. Uterine Leiomyomas: MR Imaging-guided Focused Ultrasound Surgery-Imaging Predictors of Success. Radiology. 2008;249 (1) :187-94.Abstract

PURPOSE: To retrospectively assess the magnetic resonance (MR) imaging predictors of success at reducing uterine leiomyoma volume and achieving patient symptom relief 12 months after MR imaging-guided focused ultrasound surgery. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This single-center retrospective analysis of 71 symptomatic fibroids in 66 women was approved by the institutional review board and was HIPAA-compliant. Patients were treated with MR imaging-guided focused ultrasound surgery. The volume of treated fibroid and nonperfused volume (NPV) were calculated with software, while symptom outcome was assessed with a symptom severity score (SSS). Fibroids were classified as hyperintense or hypointense relative to skeletal muscle on pretreatment T2-weighted MR images. RESULTS: Baseline volume of treated fibroids was 255.5 cm(3) +/- 201.7 (standard deviation), and baseline SSS was 61.5 +/- 14.9. Both pretreatment fibroid signal intensity (SI) and posttreatment NPV predicted 12-month volume reduction independently: Fibroids with an NPV of at least 20% or with low SI both showed significantly larger volume reduction (17.0% +/- 13.0 and 17.2% +/- 20.1, respectively) than fibroids with an NPV less than 20% or with high SI (10.7% +/- 18.2 and no significant change, respectively). Patients whose fibroids demonstrated an NPV of at least 20% also experienced a larger decrease in SSS than did patients with fibroids with an NPV less than 20% (50.1% +/- 19.8 vs 32.6% +/- 29.9). CONCLUSION: Fibroids with low SI on pretreatment T2-weighted MR images were more likely to shrink than were ones with high SI. The larger the NPV immediately after treatment, the greater the volume reduction and symptom relief were. These findings may help both in selecting appropriate patients for MR-guided focused ultrasound surgery and in predicting patient outcome.

2007
Tuncali K, Morrison PR, Winalski CS, Carrino JA, Shankar S, Ready JE, Sonnenberg E, Silverman SG. MRI-guided percutaneous cryotherapy for soft-tissue and bone metastases: initial experience. AJR Am J Roentgenol. [Internet]. 2007;189 (1) :232-9. Publisher's VersionAbstract

OBJECTIVE:

We sought to determine the safety and feasibility of percutaneous MRI-guided cryotherapy in the care of patients with refractory or painful metastatic lesions of soft tissue and bone adjacent to critical structures.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

Twenty-seven biopsy-proven metastatic lesions of soft tissue (n = 17) and bone (n = 10) in 22 patients (15 men, seven women; age range, 24-85 years) were managed with MRI-guided percutaneous cryotherapy. The mean lesion diameter was 5.2 cm. Each lesion was adjacent to or encasing one or more critical structures, including bowel, bladder, and major blood vessels. A 0.5-T open interventional MRI system was used for cryoprobe placement and ice-ball monitoring. Complications were assessed for all treatments. CT or MRI was used to determine local control of 21 tumors. Pain palliation was assessed clinically in 19 cases. The mean follow-up period was 19.5 weeks.

RESULTS:

Twenty-two (81%) of 27 tumors were managed without injury to adjacent critical structures. Two patients had transient lower extremity numbness, and two had both urinary retention and transient lower extremity paresthesia. One patient had chronic serous vaginal discharge, and one sustained a femoral neck fracture at the ablation site 6 weeks after treatment. Thirteen (62%) of the 21 tumors for which follow-up information was available either remained the same size as before treatment or regressed. Eight tumors progressed (mean local progression-free interval, 5.6 months; range, 3-18 months). Pain was palliated in 17 of 19 patients; six of the 17 experienced complete relief, and 11 had partial relief.

CONCLUSION:

MRI-guided percutaneous cryotherapy for metastatic lesions of soft tissue and bone adjacent to critical structures is safe and can provide local tumor control and pain relief in most patients.

Wittek A, Miller K, Kikinis R, Warfield SK. Patient-specific model of brain deformation: application to medical image registration. J Biomech. 2007;40 (4) :919-29.Abstract
This contribution presents finite element computation of the deformation field within the brain during craniotomy-induced brain shift. The results were used to illustrate the capabilities of non-linear (i.e. accounting for both geometric and material non-linearities) finite element analysis in non-rigid registration of pre- and intra-operative magnetic resonance images of the brain. We used patient-specific hexahedron-dominant finite element mesh, together with realistic material properties for the brain tissue and appropriate contact conditions at boundaries. The model was loaded by the enforced motion of nodes (i.e. through prescribed motion of a boundary) at the brain surface in the craniotomy area. We suggest using explicit time-integration scheme for discretised equations of motion, as the computational times are much shorter and accuracy, for practical purposes, the same as in the case of implicit integration schemes. Application of the computed deformation field to register (i.e. align) the pre-operative images with the intra-operative ones indicated that the model very accurately predicts the displacements of the tumour and the lateral ventricles even for limited information about the brain surface deformation. The prediction accuracy improves when information about deformation of not only exposed (during craniotomy) but also unexposed parts of the brain surface is used when prescribing loading. However, it appears that the accuracy achieved using information only about the deformation of the exposed surface, that can be determined without intra-operative imaging, is acceptable. The presented results show that non-linear biomechanical models can complement medical image processing techniques when conducting non-rigid registration. Important advantage of such models over the previously used linear ones is that they do not require unrealistic assumptions that brain deformations are infinitesimally small and brain stress-strain relationship is linear.
Yoo S-S, Hu PT, Gujar N, Jolesz FA, Walker MP. A deficit in the ability to form new human memories without sleep. Nat Neurosci. 2007;10 (3) :385-92.Abstract
Evidence indicates that sleep after learning is critical for the subsequent consolidation of human memory. Whether sleep before learning is equally essential for the initial formation of new memories, however, remains an open question. We report that a single night of sleep deprivation produces a significant deficit in hippocampal activity during episodic memory encoding, resulting in worse subsequent retention. Furthermore, these hippocampal impairments instantiate a different pattern of functional connectivity in basic alertness networks of the brainstem and thalamus. We also find that unique prefrontal regions predict the success of encoding for sleep-deprived individuals relative to those who have slept normally. These results demonstrate that an absence of prior sleep substantially compromises the neural and behavioral capacity for committing new experiences to memory. It therefore appears that sleep before learning is critical in preparing the human brain for next-day memory formation-a worrying finding considering society's increasing erosion of sleep time.
Alayón S, Robertson R, Warfield SK, Ruiz-Alzola J. A fuzzy system for helping medical diagnosis of malformations of cortical development. J Biomed Inform. 2007;40 (3) :221-35.Abstract
Malformations of the cerebral cortex are recognized as a common cause of developmental delay, neurological deficits, mental retardation and epilepsy. Currently, the diagnosis of cerebral cortical malformations is based on a subjective interpretation of neuroimaging characteristics of the cerebral gray matter and underlying white matter. There is no automated system for aiding the observer in making the diagnosis of a cortical malformation. In this paper a fuzzy rule-based system is proposed as a solution for this problem. The system collects the available expert knowledge about cortical malformations and assists the medical observer in arriving at a correct diagnosis. Moreover, the system allows the study of the influence of the various factors that take part in the decision. The evaluation of the system has been carried out by comparing the automated diagnostic algorithm with known case examples of various malformations due to abnormal cortical organization. An exhaustive evaluation of the system by comparison with published cases and a ROC analysis is presented in the paper.
Rolls HK, Yoo S-S, Zou KH, Golby AJ, Panych LP. Rater-dependent accuracy in predicting the spatial location of functional centers on anatomical MR images. Clin Neurol Neurosurg. 2007;109 (3) :225-35.Abstract
OBJECTIVES: The determination of eloquent cortex is essential when planning neurosurgical approaches to brain lesions. This study examined the abilities of medical personnel of various backgrounds to predict the location of functional cortex using anatomical information provided by MR imaging. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Neurosurgeons, neuroscientists, neuroradiologists, medical students and MR technologists viewed anatomical MR images acquired from patients with brain tumors and healthy controls. These five groups of raters were then asked to locate the primary motor hand, supplementary motor and primary auditory areas and their predictions were compared to fMRI data acquired from the same subjects. RESULTS: The overall mean distance from the center of the fMRI activation was 2.38 cm. The neuroscientists performed the best and MR technologists performed the worst (mean distance from center of 1.83 and 3.04 cm, respectively, p<0.05). The difference between patients and controls was not significant. The mean distance by ROI was primary motor hand 2.03 cm, auditory area 2.06 cm and supplementary motor area 3.18 cm (p<0.05). Raters also performed best in the medial-lateral direction, compared to superior-inferior and anterior-posterior directions (mean distances from center 0.42, 1.04 and 1.81 cm, respectively). Finally, the approximate minimum fields of view necessary to capture the entire fMRI activations using the raters' predictions ranged from 5 to 15 cm, or 3 to 12 cm larger than the fMRI activations. CONCLUSION: Medical personnel of various training perform poorly when using only anatomical information to predict the location of functional areas of cortex.
Zou KH, O'Malley JA, Mauri L. Receiver-operating characteristic analysis for evaluating diagnostic tests and predictive models. Circulation. 2007;115 (5) :654-7.
Clement GT. Two-dimensional ultrasound detection with unfocused frequency-randomized signals. J Acoust Soc Am. 2007;121 (1) :636-47.Abstract
A method is described for detecting scattering in two-dimensions using an unfocused ultrasound field created from a continuously driven source array. The frequency of each element on the array is unique, resulting in a field that is highly variant as a function of both time and position. The scattered signal is then received by a single receiving line. The method, as currently written, is valid under the first order Born approximation. To demonstrate the approach, a series of simulations within the frequency range of 0.10-1.25 MHz are performed and compared with a simulated B-Scan in the same frequency range. The method is found to be superior in resolving closely spaced objects, discerning 1.4 mm separation in the radial and 0.5-mm separation in the axial direction. The method was also better able to determine object size, resolving scatters less than 10% of wavelength associated with the center frequency.
Yoo S-S, O'Leary HM, Lee J-H, Chen N-kuei, Panych LP, Jolesz FA. Reproducibility of trial-based functional MRI on motor imagery. Int J Neurosci. 2007;117 (2) :215-27.Abstract
The investigation of the reproducibility in functional MRI (fMRI) is an important step in the quantification and analysis of paradigm-related brain activation. This article reports on reproducibility of cortical activation characterized by repeated fMRI runs (10 times) during the performance of a motor imagery and a passive auditory stimulation as a control task. Two parameters, the size of activation and BOLD signal contrast, were measured from regions-of-interest for 10 subjects across different threshold conditions. The variability of these parameters was normalized with respect to the mean obtained from 10 runs, and represented as the intrasession variability. It was found that the variability was significantly lower in the measurement of BOLD signal contrast as compared to the measurement of the size of activation. The variability of the activation volume measurement was greater in the motor imagery task than in the auditory tasks across all thresholds. This task-dependent difference was not apparent from the measurement of the BOLD signal contrast. The presence of threshold dependence in the variability measurement was also examined, but no such dependency was found. The results suggest that a measurement of BOLD signal itself is a more reliable indicator of paradigm-related brain activation during repeated fMRI scans.
DiMaio SP, Pieper S, Chinzei K, Hata N, Haker SJ, Kacher DF, Fichtinger G, Tempany CM, Kikinis R. Robot-assisted needle placement in open MRI: system architecture, integration and validation. Comput Aided Surg. 2007;12 (1) :15-24.Abstract
In prostate cancer treatment, there is a move toward targeted interventions for biopsy and therapy, which has precipitated the need for precise image-guided methods for needle placement. This paper describes an integrated system for planning and performing percutaneous procedures with robotic assistance under MRI guidance. A graphical planning interface allows the physician to specify the set of desired needle trajectories, based on anatomical structures and lesions observed in the patient's registered pre-operative and pre-procedural MR images, immediately prior to the intervention in an open-bore MRI scanner. All image-space coordinates are automatically computed, and are used to position a needle guide by means of an MRI-compatible robotic manipulator, thus avoiding the limitations of the traditional fixed needle template. Automatic alignment of real-time intra-operative images aids visualization of the needle as it is manually inserted through the guide. Results from in-scanner phantom experiments are provided.
McDannold N, Vykhodtseva N, Hynynen K. Use of ultrasound pulses combined with Definity for targeted blood-brain barrier disruption: a feasibility study. Ultrasound Med Biol. 2007;33 (4) :584-90.Abstract
We have developed a method to use low-intensity focused ultrasound pulses combined with an ultrasound contrast agent to produce temporary blood-brain barrier disruption (BBBD). This method could provide a means for the targeted delivery of drugs or imaging agents into the brain. In all our previous work, we used Optison as the ultrasound contrast agent. The purpose of this study was to test the feasibility of using the contrast agent Definity for BBBD. A total of 36 non-overlapping locations were sonicated through a craniotomy in experiments in the brains of nine rabbits (four locations per rabbit; ultrasound [US] frequency: 0.69 MHz; burst: 10 ms; pulse repetition frequency (PRF): 1 Hz; duration: 20 s). The peak negative pressure amplitude ranged from 0.2 to 1.5 MPa. An additional 11 locations were sonicated using Optison at pressure amplitude of 0.5 MPa. Definity and Optison dosages were the same as those used clinically for ultrasound imaging: 10 and 50 microl/kg, respectively. The probability for BBBD (determined using MRI contrast agent enhancement) as a function of pressure amplitude was similar to that found earlier with Optison. For both agents, the probability was estimated to be 50% at 0.4 MPa using probit regression. Histologic examination revealed small, isolated areas of extravasated erythrocytes in some locations. At 0.8 MPa and higher, these areas were sometimes accompanied by tiny (dimensions of 100 microm or less) regions of damaged brain parenchyma. The magnitude of the BBBD was larger with Optison than with Definity at 0.5 MPa (signal enhancement: 13.3% +/- 4.4% vs. 8.4% +/- 4.9%; p = 0.04). In addition, more areas with extravasated erythrocytes were observed with Optison (5.0 +/- 3.5 vs. 1.4 +/- 1.9 areas with extravasation in histology section with largest effect; p = 0.03). We concluded that BBBD is possible using Definity at the dosage of contrast agent and the acoustic parameters tested in this study. The probability for BBBD as a function of pressure amplitude and the type of acute tissue effects were similar to what has been observed using Optison. However, under the experimental conditions used in this study, Optison produced a larger effect for the same acoustic pressure amplitude.
Talos I-F, Zou KH, Kikinis R, Jolesz FA. Volumetric assessment of tumor infiltration of adjacent white matter based on anatomic MRI and diffusion tensor tractography. Acad Radiol. 2007;14 (4) :431-6.Abstract
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: To perform a retrospective, quantitative assessment of the anatomic relationship between intra-axial, supratentorial, primary brain tumors, and adjacent white matter fiber tracts based on anatomic and diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We hypothesized that white matter infiltration may be common among different types of tumor. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Preoperative, anatomic (T1- and T2-weighted), and LINESCAN diffusion tensor MRI were obtained in 12 patients harboring supratentorial gliomas (World Health Organization [WHO] Grades II and III). The two imaging modalities were rigidly registered. The tumors were manually segmented from the T1- and T2-weighted MRI, and their volume calculated. A three-dimensional tractography was performed in each case. A second segmentation and volume measurement was performed on the tumor regions intersecting adjacent white matter fiber tracts. Statistical methods included summary statistics to examine the fraction of tumor volume infiltrating adjacent white matter. RESULTS: There were five patients with low-grade oligodendroglioma (WHO Grade II), one with low-grade mixed oligoastrocytoma (WHO Grade II), one with ganglioglioma, two with low-grade astrocytoma (WHO Grade II), and three with anaplastic astrocytoma (WHO Grade III). We identified white matter tracts infiltrated by tumor in all 12 cases. The median tumor volume (+/- standard deviation) in our patient population was 42.5 +/- 28.9 mL. The median tumor volume (+/- standard deviation) infiltrating white matter fiber tracts was 5.2 +/- 9.9 mL. The median percentage of tumor volume infiltrating white matter fiber tracts was 21.4% +/- 9.7%. CONCLUSIONS: The information provided by diffusion tensor imaging combined with anatomic MRI might be useful for neurosurgical planning and intraoperative guidance. Our results confirm previous reports that extensive white matter infiltration by primary brain tumors is a common occurrence. However, prospective, large population studies are required to definitively clarify this issue, and how infiltration relates to histologic tumor type, tumor size, and location.

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