G Fan, H Liu, Z. Wu, Y. Li, C Feng, D Wang, J Luo, WM Wells, and S He. 2019. “Deep Learning-Based Automatic Segmentation of Lumbosacral Nerves on CT for Spinal Intervention: A Translational Study.” AJNR Am J Neuroradiol, 40, 6, Pp. 1074-81.Abstract
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: 3D reconstruction of a targeted area ("safe" triangle and Kambin triangle) may benefit the viability assessment of transforaminal epidural steroid injection, especially at the L5/S1 level. However, manual segmentation of lumbosacral nerves for 3D reconstruction is time-consuming. The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of deep learning-based segmentation of lumbosacral nerves on CT and the reconstruction of the safe triangle and Kambin triangle. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 50 cases of spinal CT were manually labeled for lumbosacral nerves and bones using Slicer 4.8. The ratio of training/validation/testing was 32:8:10. A 3D U-Net was adopted to build the model SPINECT for automatic segmentations of lumbosacral structures. The Dice score, pixel accuracy, and Intersection over Union were computed to assess the segmentation performance of SPINECT. The areas of Kambin and safe triangles were measured to validate the 3D reconstruction. RESULTS: The results revealed successful segmentation of lumbosacral bone and nerve on CT. The average pixel accuracy for bone was 0.940, and for nerve, 0.918. The average Intersection over Union for bone was 0.897 and for nerve, 0.827. The Dice score for bone was 0.945, and for nerve, it was 0.905. There were no significant differences in the quantified Kambin triangle or safe triangle between manually segmented images and automatically segmented images ( > .05). CONCLUSIONS: Deep learning-based automatic segmentation of lumbosacral structures (nerves and bone) on routine CT is feasible, and SPINECT-based 3D reconstruction of safe and Kambin triangles is also validated.
Sanjay S Yengul, Paul E Barbone, and Bruno Madore. 2019. “Dispersion in Tissue-Mimicking Gels Measured with Shear Wave Elastography and Torsional Vibration Rheometry.” Ultrasound Med Biol, 45, 2, Pp. 586-604.Abstract
Dispersion, or the frequency dependence of mechanical parameters, is a primary confounding factor in elastography comparisons. We present a study of dispersion in tissue-mimicking gels over a wide frequency band using a combination of ultrasound shear wave elastography (SWE), and a novel torsional vibration rheometry which allows independent mechanical measurement of SWE samples. Frequency-dependent complex shear modulus was measured in homogeneous gelatin hydrogels of two different bloom strengths while controlling for confounding factors such as temperature, water content and material aging. Furthermore, both techniques measured the same physical samples, thereby eliminating possible variation caused by batch-to-batch gel variation, sample geometry differences and boundary artifacts. The wide-band measurement, from 1 to 1800 Hz, captured a 30%-50% increase in the storage modulus and a nearly linear increase with frequency of the loss modulus. The magnitude of the variation suggests that accounting for dispersion is essential for meaningful comparisons between SWE implementations.
Prashin Unadkat, Luca Fumagalli, Laura Rigolo, Mark G Vangel, Geoffrey S Young, Raymond Huang, Srinivasan Mukundan, Alexandra Golby, and Yanmei Tie. 2019. “Functional MRI Task Comparison for Language Mapping in Neurosurgical Patients.” J Neuroimaging, 29, 3, Pp. 348-56.Abstract
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Language task-based functional MRI (fMRI) is increasingly used for presurgical planning in patients with brain lesions. Different paradigms elicit activations of different components of the language network. The aim of this study is to optimize fMRI clinical usage by comparing the effectiveness of three language tasks for language lateralization and localization in a large group of patients with brain lesions. METHODS: We analyzed fMRI data from a sequential retrospective cohort of 51 patients with brain lesions who underwent presurgical fMRI language mapping. We compared the effectiveness of three language tasks (Antonym Generation, Sentence Completion (SC), and Auditory Naming) for lateralizing language function and for activating cortex within patient-specific regions-of-interest representing eloquent language areas, and assessed the degree of spatial overlap of the areas of activation elicited by each task. RESULTS: The tasks were similarly effective for lateralizing language within the anterior language areas. The SC task produced higher laterality indices within the posterior language areas and had a significantly higher agreement with the clinical report. Dice coefficients between the task pairs were in the range of .351-.458, confirming substantial variation in the components of the language network activated by each task. CONCLUSIONS: SC task consistently produced large activations within the dominant hemisphere and was more effective for lateralizing language within the posterior language areas. The low degree of spatial overlap among the tasks strongly supports the practice of using a battery of tasks to help the surgeon to avoid eloquent language areas.
Nicholas D Schmitt, Catherine M Rawlins, Elizabeth C Randall, Xianzhe Wang, Antonius Koller, Jared R. Auclair, Jane-Marie Kowalski, Paul J. Kowalski, Ed Luther, Alexander R Ivanov, Nathalie YR Agar, and Jeffrey N Agar. 2019. “Genetically Encoded Fluorescent Proteins Enable High-Throughput Assignment of Cell Cohorts Directly from MALDI-MS Images.” Anal Chem, 91, 6, Pp. 3810-7.Abstract
Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) provides a unique in situ chemical profile that can include drugs, nucleic acids, metabolites, lipids, and proteins. MSI of individual cells (of a known cell type) affords a unique insight into normal and disease-related processes and is a prerequisite for combining the results of MSI and other single-cell modalities (e.g. mass cytometry and next-generation sequencing). Technological barriers have prevented the high-throughput assignment of MSI spectra from solid tissue preparations to their cell type. These barriers include obtaining a suitable cell-identifying image (e.g. immunohistochemistry) and obtaining sufficiently accurate registration of the cell-identifying and MALDI-MS images. This study introduces a technique that overcame these barriers by assigning cell type directly from mass spectra. We hypothesized that, in MSI from mice with a defined fluorescent protein expression pattern, the fluorescent protein's molecular ion could be used to identify cell cohorts. A method was developed for the purification of enhanced yellow fluorescent protein (EYFP) from mice. To determine EYFP's molecular mass for MSI studies, we performed intact mass analysis and characterized the protein's primary structure and post-translational modifications through various techniques. MALDI-MSI methods were developed to enhance the detection of EYFP in situ, and by extraction of EYFP's molecular ion from MALDI-MS images, automated, whole-image assignment of cell cohorts was achieved. This method was validated using a well-characterized mouse line that expresses EYFP in motor and sensory neurons and should be applicable to hundreds of commercially available mice (and other animal) strains comprising a multitude of cell-specific fluorescent labels.
Colles Price, Stanley Gill, Zandra V Ho, Shawn M Davidson, Erin Merkel, James M McFarland, Lisa Leung, Andrew Tang, Maria Kost-Alimova, Aviad Tsherniak, Oliver Jonas, Francisca Vazquez, and William C Hahn. 2019. “Genome-Wide Interrogation of Human Cancers Identifies EGLN1 Dependency in Clear Cell Ovarian Cancers.” Cancer Res, 79, 10, Pp. 2564-79.Abstract
We hypothesized that candidate dependencies for which there are small molecules that are either approved or in advanced development for a nononcology indication may represent potential therapeutic targets. To test this hypothesis, we performed genome-scale loss-of-function screens in hundreds of cancer cell lines. We found that knockout of , which encodes prolyl hydroxylase domain-containing protein 2 (PHD2), reduced the proliferation of a subset of clear cell ovarian cancer cell lines . EGLN1-dependent cells exhibited sensitivity to the pan-EGLN inhibitor FG-4592. The response to FG-4592 was reversed by deletion of HIF1A, demonstrating that EGLN1 dependency was related to negative regulation of HIF1A. We also found that ovarian clear cell tumors susceptible to both genetic and pharmacologic inhibition of EGLN1 required intact HIF1A. Collectively, these observations identify EGLN1 as a cancer target with therapeutic potential. SIGNIFICANCE: These findings reveal a differential dependency of clear cell ovarian cancers on EGLN1, thus identifying EGLN1 as a potential therapeutic target in clear cell ovarian cancer patients.
Mehdi Taghipour, Alireza Ziaei, Francesco Alessandrino, Elmira Hassanzadeh, Mukesh Harisinghani, Mark Vangel, Clare M Tempany, and Fiona M Fennessy. 2019. “Investigating the Role of DCE-MRI, over T2 and DWI, in accurate PI-RADS v2 Assessment of Clinically Significant Peripheral Zone Prostate Lesions as Defined at Radical Prostatectomy.” Abdom Radiol (NY), 44, 4, Pp. 1520-7.Abstract
PURPOSE: PI-RADS v2 dictates that dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) imaging be used to further classify peripheral zone (PZ) cases that receive a diffusion-weighted imaging equivocal score of three (DWI3), a positive DCE resulting in an increase in overall assessment score to a four, indicative of clinically significant prostate cancer (csPCa). However, the accuracy of DCE in predicting csPCa in DWI3 PZ cases is unknown. This study sought to determine the frequency with which DCE changes the PI-RADS v2 DWI3 assessment category, and to determine the overall accuracy of DCE-MRI in equivocal PZ DWI3 lesions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a retrospective study of patients with pathologically proven PCa who underwent prostate mpMRI at 3T and subsequent radical prostatectomy. PI-RADS v2 assessment categories were determined by a radiologist, aware of a diagnosis of PCa, but blinded to final pathology. csPCa was defined as a Gleason score ≥ 7 or extra prostatic extension at pathology review. Performance characteristics and diagnostic accuracy of DCE in assigning a csPCa assessment in PZ lesions were calculated. RESULTS: A total of 271 men with mean age of 59 ± 6 years mean PSA 6.7 ng/mL were included. csPCa was found in 212/271 (78.2%) cases at pathology, 209 of which were localized in the PZ. DCE was necessary to further classify (45/209) of patients who received a score of DWI3. DCE was positive in 29/45 cases, increasing the final PI-RADS v2 assessment category to a category 4, with 16/45 having a negative DCE. When compared with final pathology, DCE was correct in increasing the assessment category in 68.9% ± 7% (31/45) of DWI3 cases. CONCLUSION: DCE increases the accuracy of detection of csPCa in the majority of PZ lesions that receive an equivocal PI-RADS v2 assessment category using DWI.
Sankha S Basu, Madison H McMinn, Begoña Giménez-Cassina Lopéz, Michael S Regan, Elizabeth C Randall, Amanda R Clark, Christopher R Cox, and Nathalie YR Agar. 2019. “Metal Oxide Laser Ionization Mass Spectrometry Imaging (MOLI MSI) Using Cerium(IV) Oxide.” Anal Chem, 91, 10, Pp. 6800-7.Abstract
Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI MSI) is a powerful technique for spatially resolved metabolomics. A variation on MALDI, termed metal oxide laser ionization (MOLI), capitalizes on the unique property of cerium(IV) oxide (CeO) to induce laser-catalyzed fatty acyl cleavage from lipids and has been utilized for bacterial identification. In this study, we present the development and utilization of CeO as an MSI catalyst. The method was developed using a MALDI TOF instrument in negative ion mode, equipped with a high frequency laser. Instrument parameters for MOLI MS fatty acid catalysis with CeO were optimized with phospholipid standards and fatty acid catalysis was confirmed using lipid extracts from reference bacterial strains, and sample preparation was optimized using mouse brain tissue. MOLI MSI was applied to the imaging of normal mouse brain revealing differentiable fatty acyl pools in myelinated and nonmyelinated regions. Similarly, MOLI MSI showed distinct fatty acyl composition in tumor regions of a patient derived xenograft mouse model of glioblastoma. To assess the potential of MOLI MSI to detect pathogens directly from tissue, a pseudoinfection model was prepared by spotting Escherichia coli lipid extracts on mouse brain tissue sections and imaged by MOLI MSI. The spotted regions were molecularly resolved from the supporting mouse brain tissue by the diagnostic odd-chained fatty acids and reflected control bacterial MOLI MS signatures. We describe MOLI MSI for the first time and highlight its potential for spatially resolved fatty acyl analysis, characterization of fatty acyl composition in tumors, and its potential for pathogen detection directly from tissue.
Fan Zhang, Lipeng Ning, Lauren J O'Donnell, and Ofer Pasternak. 2019. “MK-curve - Characterizing the Relation between Mean Kurtosis and Alterations in the Diffusion MRI Signal.” Neuroimage, 196, Pp. 68-80.Abstract
Diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) is a diffusion MRI (dMRI) technique to quantify brain microstructural properties. While DKI measures are sensitive to tissue alterations, they are also affected by signal alterations caused by imaging artifacts such as noise, motion and Gibbs ringing. Consequently, DKI often yields output parameter values (e.g. mean kurtosis; MK) that are implausible. These include implausible values that are outside of the range dictated by physics/biology, and visually apparent implausible values that form unexpected discontinuities, being too high or too low comparing with their neighborhood. These implausible values will introduce bias into any following data analyses (e.g. between-population statistical computation). Existing studies have attempted to correct implausible DKI parameter values in multiple ways; however, these approaches are not always effective. In this study, we propose a novel method for detecting and correcting voxels with implausible values to enable improved DKI parameter estimation. In particular, we focus on MK parameter estimation. We first characterize the relation between MK and alterations in the dMRI signal including diffusion weighted images (DWIs) and the baseline (b0) images. This is done by calculating MK for a range of synthetic DWI or b0 for each voxel, and generating curves (MK-curve) representing how alterations to the input dMRI signals affect the resulting output MK. We find that voxels with implausible MK values are more likely caused by artifacts in the b0 images than artifacts in DWIs with higher b-values. Accordingly, two characteristic b0 values, which define a range of synthetic b0 values that generate implausible MK values, are identified on the MK-curve. Based on this characterization, we propose an automatic approach for detection of voxels with implausible MK values by comparing a voxel's original b0 signal to the identified two characteristic b0 values, along with a correction strategy to replace the original b0 in each detected implausible voxel with a synthetic b0 value computed from the MK-curve. We evaluate the method on a DKI phantom dataset and dMRI datasets from the Human Connectome Project (HCP), and we compare the proposed correction method with other previously proposed correction methods. Results show that our proposed method is able to identify and correct most voxels with implausible DKI parameter values as well as voxels with implausible diffusion tensor parameter values.
Jean-Jacques Lemaire, Antonio De Salles, Guillaume Coll, Youssef El Ouadih, Rémi Chaix, Jérôme Coste, Franck Durif, Nikos Makris, and Ron Kikinis. 2019. “MRI Atlas of the Human Deep Brain.” Front Neurol, 10, Pp. 851.Abstract
Mastering detailed anatomy of the human deep brain in clinical neurosciences is challenging. Although numerous pioneering works have gathered a large dataset of structural and topographic information, it is still difficult to transfer this knowledge into practice, even with advanced magnetic resonance imaging techniques. Thus, classical histological atlases continue to be used to identify structures for stereotactic targeting in functional neurosurgery. Physicians mainly use these atlases as a template co-registered with the patient's brain. However, it is possible to directly identify stereotactic targets on MRI scans, enabling personalized targeting. In order to help clinicians directly identify deep brain structures relevant to present and future medical applications, we built a volumetric MRI atlas of the deep brain (MDBA) on a large scale (infra millimetric). Twelve hypothalamic, 39 subthalamic, 36 telencephalic, and 32 thalamic structures were identified, contoured, and labeled. Nineteen coronal, 18 axial, and 15 sagittal MRI plates were created. Although primarily designed for direct labeling, the anatomic space was also subdivided in twelfths of AC-PC distance, leading to proportional scaling in the coronal, axial, and sagittal planes. This extensive work is now available to clinicians and neuroscientists, offering another representation of the human deep brain ([] [hal-02116633]). The atlas may also be used by computer scientists who are interested in deciphering the topography of this complex region.
Muna Aryal, Iason Papademetriou, Yong-Zhi Zhang, Chanikarn Power, Nathan McDannold, and Tyrone Porter. 2019. “MRI Monitoring and Quantification of Ultrasound-Mediated Delivery of Liposomes Dually Labeled with Gadolinium and Fluorophore through the Blood-Brain Barrier.” Ultrasound Med Biol, 45, 7, Pp. 1733-42.Abstract
Magnetic resonance image-guided focused ultrasound has emerged as a viable non-invasive technique for the treatment of central nervous system-related diseases/disorders. Application of mechanical and thermal effects associated with focused transcranial ultrasound has been studied extensively in pre-clinical models, which has paved the way for clinical trials. However, in vivo treatment evaluation techniques on drug delivery application via blood-brain barrier opening has not been fully explored. Current treatment evaluation techniques via magnetic resonance imaging are hindered by systemic toxicity resulting from free gadolinium delivery. Here we propose a novel treatment evaluation strategy to overcome limitations by (i) synthesizing liposomes that are dually labeled with gadolinium, a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent, and rhodamine, a fluorophore; (ii) applying a focused ultrasound (FUS)-mediated BBB opening technique to deliver the liposomes across vascular barriers, achieving local gadolinium enhancement while reducing systemic and unwanted regional toxic effects associated with free gadolinium; and (iii) utilizing the MRI modality to confirm the delivery as it is already included in the FUS treatment in clinic. Liposomes were secondarily labeled with a fluorescent marker to confirm results obtained by MRI quantification postmortem. Two different sizes, 77.5 nm (group A) and 140 nm (group B), of gadolinium- and fluorescence-labeled liposomes were fabricated using thin-film hydration followed by extrusion methods and determined their stability up to 6 h under physiologic conditions. Gadolinium signal was detected on contrast-enhanced T1-weighted MRI 5 h after the delivery of liposomes via the BBB opening approach with an ultrasound pulse of 0.42 MPa (estimate in water) combined with microbubbles. MRI contrast was enhanced significantly in sonicated regions compared with non-sonicated regions of the brain. This was due to the accumulation of labeled liposomes, which was confirmed by detection of rhodamine fluorescence in histologic sections. The relative increase in MRI signal intensity was greater for smaller liposomes (mean diameter = 77.5 nm) than larger liposomes (mean diameter = 140 nm), which suggested a greater accumulation of the smaller liposomes in the brain after ultrasound-mediated opening of the BBB. Our findings suggest that the dual-labeled nanocarrier platform can be established, the FUS-mediated BBB opening approach can be used to deliver it through vascular barriers and MRI can be used to evaluate the extent of nanocarrier delivery.
Thomas C Lee, Jeffrey P Guenette, Ziev B Moses, and John H Chi. 2019. “MRI-Guided Cryoablation of Epidural Malignancies in the Spinal Canal Resulting in Neural Decompression and Regrowth of Bone.” AJR Am J Roentgenol, 212, 1, Pp. 205-8.Abstract
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this article is to describe the use of MRI to safely monitor cryoablation for the treatment of spinal epidural malignancies. CONCLUSION: Use of MRI guidance to monitor percutaneous cryoablation allows ablation margins more distinct than those allowed by heat-based ablation modalities. MRI-guided cryoablation is a feasible option for treating epidural tumors involving the spinal canal, resulting in successful decompression of the tumor away from the spinal cord with regrowth of previously eroded bone around the spinal canal.
Cheng-Chieh Cheng, Frank Preiswerk, W. Scott Hoge, Tai-Hsin Kuo, and Bruno Madore. 2019. “Multipathway Multi-echo (MPME) Imaging: All Main MR Parameters Mapped Based on a Single 3D Scan.” Magn Reson Med, 81, 3, Pp. 1699-1713.Abstract
PURPOSE: Quantitative parameter maps, as opposed to qualitative grayscale images, may represent the future of diagnostic MRI. A new quantitative MRI method is introduced here that requires a single 3D acquisition, allowing good spatial coverage to be achieved in relatively short scan times. METHODS: A multipathway multi-echo sequence was developed, and at least 3 pathways with 2 TEs were needed to generate T , T , T , B , and B maps. The method required the central k-space region to be sampled twice, with the same sequence but with 2 very different nominal flip angle settings. Consequently, scan time was only slightly longer than that of a single scan. The multipathway multi-echo data were reconstructed into parameter maps, for phantom as well as brain acquisitions, in 5 healthy volunteers at 3 T. Spatial resolution, matrix size, and FOV were 1.2 × 1.0 × 1.2 mm , 160 × 192 × 160, and 19.2 × 19.2 × 19.2 cm (whole brain), acquired in 11.5 minutes with minimal acceleration. Validation was performed against T , T , and T maps calculated from gradient-echo and spin-echo data. RESULTS: In Bland-Altman plots, bias and limits of agreement for T and T results in vivo and in phantom were -2.9/±125.5 ms (T in vivo), -4.8/±20.8 ms (T in vivo), -1.5/±18.1 ms (T in phantom), and -5.3/±7.4 ms (T in phantom), for regions of interest including given brain structures or phantom compartments. Due to relatively high noise levels, the current implementation of the approach may prove more useful for region of interest-based as opposed to pixel-based interpretation. CONCLUSIONS: We proposed a novel approach to quantitatively map MR parameters based on a multipathway multi-echo acquisition.
Sonja Stojanovski, Daniel Felsky, Joseph D Viviano, Saba Shahab, Rutwik Bangali, Christie L Burton, Gabriel A Devenyi, Lauren J O'Donnell, Peter Szatmari, Mallar M Chakravarty, Stephanie Ameis, Russell Schachar, Aristotle N Voineskos, and Anne L Wheeler. 2019. “Polygenic Risk and Neural Substrates of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms in Youths With a History of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury.” Biol Psychiatry, 85, 5, Pp. 408-16.Abstract
BACKGROUND: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a major sequela of traumatic brain injury (TBI) in youths. The objective of this study was to examine whether ADHD symptoms are differentially associated with genetic risk and brain structure in youths with and without a history of TBI. METHODS: Medical history, ADHD symptoms, genetic data, and neuroimaging data were obtained from a community sample of youths. ADHD symptom severity was compared between those with and without TBI (TBI n = 418, no TBI n = 3193). The relationship of TBI history, genetic vulnerability, brain structure, and ADHD symptoms was examined by assessing 1) ADHD polygenic score (discovery sample ADHD n = 19,099, control sample n = 34,194), 2) basal ganglia volumes, and 3) fractional anisotropy in the corpus callosum and corona radiata. RESULTS: Youths with TBI reported greater ADHD symptom severity compared with those without TBI. Polygenic score was positively associated with ADHD symptoms in youths without TBI but not in youths with TBI. The negative association between the caudate volume and ADHD symptoms was not moderated by a history of TBI. However, the relationship between ADHD symptoms and structure of the genu of the corpus callosum was negative in youths with TBI and positive in youths without TBI. CONCLUSIONS: The identification of distinct ADHD etiology in youths with TBI provides neurobiological insight into the clinical heterogeneity in the disorder. Results indicate that genetic predisposition to ADHD does not increase the risk for ADHD symptoms associated with TBI. ADHD symptoms associated with TBI may be a result of a mechanical insult rather than neurodevelopmental factors.
Di Fan, Nikhil N Chaudhari, Kenneth A Rostowsky, Maria Calvillo, Sean K Lee, Nahian F Chowdhury, Fan Zhang, Lauren J O'Donnell, and Andrei Irimia. 2019. “Post-Traumatic Cerebral Microhemorrhages and their Effects Upon White Matter Connectivity in the Aging Human Brain.” Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc, 2019, Pp. 198-203.Abstract
Cerebral microbleeds (CMBs), a common manifestation of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), have been sporadically implicated in the neurocognitive deficits of mTBI victims but their clinical significance has not been established adequately. Here we investigate the longitudinal effects of post-mTBI CMBs upon the fractional anisotropy (FA) of white matter (WM) in 21 older mTBI patients across the first ~6 months post-injury. CMBs were segmented automatically from susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) by leveraging the intensity gradient properties of SWI to identify CMB-related hypointensities using gradient-based edge detection. A detailed diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) atlas of WM was used to segment and cluster tractography streamlines whose prototypes were then identified. The correlation coefficient was calculated between (A) FA values at vertices along streamline prototypes and (B) topological (along-streamline) distances between these vertices and the nearest CMB. Across subjects, the CMB identification approach achieved a sensitivity of 97.1% ± 4.7% and a precision of 72.4% ± 11.0% across subjects. The correlation coefficient was found to be negative and, additionally, statistically significant for 12.3% ± 3.5% of WM clusters (p <; 0.05, corrected), whose FA was found to decrease, on average, by 11.8% ± 5.3% across the first 6 months post-injury. These results suggest that CMBs can be associated with deleterious effects upon peri-lesional WM and highlight the vulnerability of older mTBI patients to neurovascular injury.
Baris Turkbey, Andrew B Rosenkrantz, Masoom A Haider, Anwar R Padhani, Geert Villeirs, Katarzyna J Macura, Clare M Tempany, Peter L Choyke, Francois Cornud, Daniel J Margolis, Harriet C Thoeny, Sadhna Verma, Jelle Barentsz, and Jeffrey C Weinreb. 2019. “Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System Version 2.1: 2019 Update of Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System Version 2.” Eur Urol, 76, 3, Pp. 340-51.Abstract
The Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System version 2 (PI-RADS v2) was developed with a consensus-based process using a combination of published data, and expert observations and opinions. In the short time since its release, numerous studies have validated the value of PI-RADS v2 but, as expected, have also identified a number of ambiguities and limitations, some of which have been documented in the literature with potential solutions offered. To address these issues, the PI-RADS Steering Committee, again using a consensus-based process, has recommended several modifications to PI-RADS v2, maintaining the framework of assigning scores to individual sequences and using these scores to derive an overall assessment category. This updated version, described in this article, is termed PI-RADS v2.1. It is anticipated that the adoption of these PI-RADS v2.1 modifications will improve inter-reader variability and simplify PI-RADS assessment of prostate magnetic resonance imaging even further. Research on the value and limitations on all components of PI-RADS v2.1 is strongly encouraged.
Sankha S Basu, Michael S Regan, Elizabeth C Randall, Walid M Abdelmoula, Amanda R Clark, Begoña Gimenez-Cassina Lopez, Dale S Cornett, Andreas Haase, Sandro Santagata, and Nathalie YR Agar. 2019. “Rapid MALDI Mass Spectrometry Imaging for Surgical Pathology.” NPJ Precis Oncol, 3, Pp. 17.Abstract
Matrix assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI MSI) is an emerging analytical technique, which generates spatially resolved proteomic and metabolomic images from tissue specimens. Conventional MALDI MSI processing and data acquisition can take over 30 min, limiting its clinical utility for intraoperative diagnostics. We present a rapid MALDI MSI method, completed under 5 min, including sample preparation and analysis, providing a workflow compatible with the clinical frozen section procedure.
Michael Schwier, Joost van Griethuysen, Mark G Vangel, Steve Pieper, Sharon Peled, Clare Tempany, Hugo JWL Aerts, Ron Kikinis, Fiona M Fennessy, and Andriy Fedorov. 2019. “Repeatability of Multiparametric Prostate MRI Radiomics Features.” Sci Rep, 9, 1, Pp. 9441.Abstract
In this study we assessed the repeatability of radiomics features on small prostate tumors using test-retest Multiparametric Magnetic Resonance Imaging (mpMRI). The premise of radiomics is that quantitative image-based features can serve as biomarkers for detecting and characterizing disease. For such biomarkers to be useful, repeatability is a basic requirement, meaning its value must remain stable between two scans, if the conditions remain stable. We investigated repeatability of radiomics features under various preprocessing and extraction configurations including various image normalization schemes, different image pre-filtering, and different bin widths for image discretization. Although we found many radiomics features and preprocessing combinations with high repeatability (Intraclass Correlation Coefficient > 0.85), our results indicate that overall the repeatability is highly sensitive to the processing parameters. Neither image normalization, using a variety of approaches, nor the use of pre-filtering options resulted in consistent improvements in repeatability. We urge caution when interpreting radiomics features and advise paying close attention to the processing configuration details of reported results. Furthermore, we advocate reporting all processing details in radiomics studies and strongly recommend the use of open source implementations.
Nandita M deSouza and Clare M Tempany. 2019. “A Risk-based Approach to Identifying Oligometastatic Disease on Imaging.” Int J Cancer, 144, 3, Pp. 422-30.Abstract
Recognition of <3 metastases in <2 organs, particularly in cancers with a known predisposition to oligometastatic disease (OMD) (colorectal, prostate, renal, sarcoma and lung), offers the opportunity to focally treat the lesions identified and confers a survival advantage. The reliability with which OMD is identified depends on the sensitivity of the imaging technique used for detection and may be predicted from phenotypic and genetic factors of the primary tumour, which determine metastatic risk. Whole-body or organ-specific imaging to identify oligometastases requires optimization to achieve maximal sensitivity. Metastatic lesions at multiple locations may require a variety of imaging modalities for best visualisation because the optimal image contrast is determined by tumour biology. Newer imaging techniques used for this purpose require validation. Additionally, rationalisation of imaging strategies is needed, particularly with regard to timing of imaging and follow-up studies. This article reviews the current evidence for the use of imaging for recognising OMD and proposes a risk-based roadmap for identifying patients with true OMD, or at risk of metastatic disease likely to be OM.
Björn Lampinen, Filip Szczepankiewicz, Mikael Novén, Danielle van Westen, Oskar Hansson, Elisabet Englund, Johan Mårtensson, Carl-Fredrik Westin, and Markus Nilsson. 2019. “Searching for the Neurite Density with Diffusion MRI: Challenges for Biophysical Modeling.” Hum Brain Mapp, 40, 8, Pp. 2529-45.Abstract
In vivo mapping of the neurite density with diffusion MRI (dMRI) is a high but challenging aim. First, it is unknown whether all neurites exhibit completely anisotropic ("stick-like") diffusion. Second, the "density" of tissue components may be confounded by non-diffusion properties such as T2 relaxation. Third, the domain of validity for the estimated parameters to serve as indices of neurite density is incompletely explored. We investigated these challenges by acquiring data with "b-tensor encoding" and multiple echo times in brain regions with low orientation coherence and in white matter lesions. Results showed that microscopic anisotropy from b-tensor data is associated with myelinated axons but not with dendrites. Furthermore, b-tensor data together with data acquired for multiple echo times showed that unbiased density estimates in white matter lesions require data-driven estimates of compartment-specific T2 values. Finally, the "stick" fractions of different biophysical models could generally not serve as neurite density indices across the healthy brain and white matter lesions, where outcomes of comparisons depended on the choice of constraints. In particular, constraining compartment-specific T2 values was ambiguous in the healthy brain and had a large impact on estimated values. In summary, estimating neurite density generally requires accounting for different diffusion and/or T2 properties between axons and dendrites. Constrained "index" parameters could be valid within limited domains that should be delineated by future studies.
Luca Canalini, Jan Klein, Dorothea Miller, and Ron Kikinis. 2019. “Segmentation-based Registration of Ultrasound Volumes for Glioma Resection in Image-guided Neurosurgery.” Int J Comput Assist Radiol Surg, 14, 10, Pp. 1697-1713.Abstract
PURPOSE: In image-guided surgery for glioma removal, neurosurgeons usually plan the resection on images acquired before surgery and use them for guidance during the subsequent intervention. However, after the surgical procedure has begun, the preplanning images become unreliable due to the brain shift phenomenon, caused by modifications of anatomical structures and imprecisions in the neuronavigation system. To obtain an updated view of the resection cavity, a solution is to collect intraoperative data, which can be additionally acquired at different stages of the procedure in order to provide a better understanding of the resection. A spatial mapping between structures identified in subsequent acquisitions would be beneficial. We propose here a fully automated segmentation-based registration method to register ultrasound (US) volumes acquired at multiple stages of neurosurgery. METHODS: We chose to segment sulci and falx cerebri in US volumes, which remain visible during resection. To automatically segment these elements, first we trained a convolutional neural network on manually annotated structures in volumes acquired before the opening of the dura mater and then we applied it to segment corresponding structures in different surgical phases. Finally, the obtained masks are used to register US volumes acquired at multiple resection stages. RESULTS: Our method reduces the mean target registration error (mTRE) between volumes acquired before the opening of the dura mater and during resection from 3.49 mm (± 1.55 mm) to 1.36 mm (± 0.61 mm). Moreover, the mTRE between volumes acquired before opening the dura mater and at the end of the resection is reduced from 3.54 mm (± 1.75 mm) to 2.05 mm (± 1.12 mm). CONCLUSION: The segmented structures demonstrated to be good candidates to register US volumes acquired at different neurosurgical phases. Therefore, our solution can compensate brain shift in neurosurgical procedures involving intraoperative US data.