Björn Lampinen, Filip Szczepankiewicz, Mikael Novén, Danielle van Westen, Oskar Hansson, Elisabet Englund, Johan Mårtensson, Carl-Fredrik Westin, and Markus Nilsson. 2019. “Searching for the Neurite Density with Diffusion MRI: Challenges for Biophysical Modeling.” Hum Brain Mapp, 40, 8, Pp. 2529-45.Abstract
In vivo mapping of the neurite density with diffusion MRI (dMRI) is a high but challenging aim. First, it is unknown whether all neurites exhibit completely anisotropic ("stick-like") diffusion. Second, the "density" of tissue components may be confounded by non-diffusion properties such as T2 relaxation. Third, the domain of validity for the estimated parameters to serve as indices of neurite density is incompletely explored. We investigated these challenges by acquiring data with "b-tensor encoding" and multiple echo times in brain regions with low orientation coherence and in white matter lesions. Results showed that microscopic anisotropy from b-tensor data is associated with myelinated axons but not with dendrites. Furthermore, b-tensor data together with data acquired for multiple echo times showed that unbiased density estimates in white matter lesions require data-driven estimates of compartment-specific T2 values. Finally, the "stick" fractions of different biophysical models could generally not serve as neurite density indices across the healthy brain and white matter lesions, where outcomes of comparisons depended on the choice of constraints. In particular, constraining compartment-specific T2 values was ambiguous in the healthy brain and had a large impact on estimated values. In summary, estimating neurite density generally requires accounting for different diffusion and/or T2 properties between axons and dendrites. Constrained "index" parameters could be valid within limited domains that should be delineated by future studies.
Luca Canalini, Jan Klein, Dorothea Miller, and Ron Kikinis. 2019. “Segmentation-based Registration of Ultrasound Volumes for Glioma Resection in Image-guided Neurosurgery.” Int J Comput Assist Radiol Surg, 14, 10, Pp. 1697-1713.Abstract
PURPOSE: In image-guided surgery for glioma removal, neurosurgeons usually plan the resection on images acquired before surgery and use them for guidance during the subsequent intervention. However, after the surgical procedure has begun, the preplanning images become unreliable due to the brain shift phenomenon, caused by modifications of anatomical structures and imprecisions in the neuronavigation system. To obtain an updated view of the resection cavity, a solution is to collect intraoperative data, which can be additionally acquired at different stages of the procedure in order to provide a better understanding of the resection. A spatial mapping between structures identified in subsequent acquisitions would be beneficial. We propose here a fully automated segmentation-based registration method to register ultrasound (US) volumes acquired at multiple stages of neurosurgery. METHODS: We chose to segment sulci and falx cerebri in US volumes, which remain visible during resection. To automatically segment these elements, first we trained a convolutional neural network on manually annotated structures in volumes acquired before the opening of the dura mater and then we applied it to segment corresponding structures in different surgical phases. Finally, the obtained masks are used to register US volumes acquired at multiple resection stages. RESULTS: Our method reduces the mean target registration error (mTRE) between volumes acquired before the opening of the dura mater and during resection from 3.49 mm (± 1.55 mm) to 1.36 mm (± 0.61 mm). Moreover, the mTRE between volumes acquired before opening the dura mater and at the end of the resection is reduced from 3.54 mm (± 1.75 mm) to 2.05 mm (± 1.12 mm). CONCLUSION: The segmented structures demonstrated to be good candidates to register US volumes acquired at different neurosurgical phases. Therefore, our solution can compensate brain shift in neurosurgical procedures involving intraoperative US data.
Sharon Peled, Mark Vangel, Ron Kikinis, Clare M Tempany, Fiona M Fennessy, and Andrey Fedorov. 2019. “Selection of Fitting Model and Arterial Input Function for Repeatability in Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Prostate MRI.” Acad Radiol, 26, 9, Pp. e241-e251.Abstract
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: Analysis of dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) magnetic resonance imaging is notable for the variability of calculated parameters. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the level of measurement variability and error/variability due to modeling in DCE magnetic resonance imaging parameters. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two prostate DCE scans were performed on 11 treatment-naïve patients with suspected or confirmed prostate peripheral zone cancer within an interval of less than two weeks. Tumor-suspicious and normal-appearing regions of interest (ROI) in the prostate peripheral zone were segmented. Different Tofts-Kety based models and different arterial input functions, with and without bolus arrival time (BAT) correction, were used to extract pharmacokinetic parameters. The percent repeatability coefficient (%RC) of fitted model parameters K, v, and k was calculated. Paired t-tests comparing parameters in tumor-suspicious ROIs and in normal-appearing tissue evaluated each parameter's sensitivity to pathology. RESULTS: Although goodness-of-fit criteria favored the four-parameter extended Tofts-Kety model with the BAT correction included, the simplest two-parameter Tofts-Kety model overall yielded the best repeatability scores. The best %RC in the tumor-suspicious ROI was 63% for k, 28% for v and 83% for K . The best p values for discrimination between tissues were p <10 for k and K, and p = 0.11 for v. Addition of the BAT correction to the models did not improve repeatability. CONCLUSION: The parameter k, using an arterial input functions directly measured from blood signals, was more repeatable than K. Both K and k values were highly discriminatory between healthy and diseased tissues in all cases. The parameter v had high repeatability but could not distinguish the two tissue types.
Hugo J Kuijf, Adria Casamitjana, Louis D Collins, Mahsa Dadar, Achilleas Georgiou, Mohsen Ghafoorian, Dakai Jin, April Khademi, Jesse Knight, Hongwei Li, Xavier Llado, Matthijs J Biesbroek, Miguel Luna, Qaiser Mahmood, Richard McKinley, Alireza Mehrtash, Sebastien Ourselin, Bo-Yong Park, Hyunjin Park, Sang Hyun Park, Simon Pezold, Elodie Puybareau, Jeroen De Bresser, Leticia Rittner, Carole H Sudre, Sergi Valverde, Veronica Vilaplana, Roland Wiest, Yongchao Xu, Ziyue Xu, Guodong Zeng, Jianguo Zhang, Guoyan Zheng, Rutger Heinen, Christopher Chen, Wiesje van der Flier, Frederik Barkhof, Max A Viergever, Geert Jan Biessels, Simon Andermatt, Mariana Bento, Matt Berseth, Mikhail Belyaev, and Jorge M Cardoso. 2019. “Standardized Assessment of Automatic Segmentation of White Matter Hyperintensities and Results of the WMH Segmentation Challenge.” IEEE Trans Med Imaging, 38, 11, Pp. 2556-68.Abstract
Quantification of cerebral white matter hyperintensities (WMH) of presumed vascular origin is of key importance in many neurological research studies. Currently, measurements are often still obtained from manual segmentations on brain MR images, which is a laborious procedure. The automatic WMH segmentation methods exist, but a standardized comparison of the performance of such methods is lacking. We organized a scientific challenge, in which developers could evaluate their methods on a standardized multi-center/-scanner image dataset, giving an objective comparison: the WMH Segmentation Challenge. Sixty T1 + FLAIR images from three MR scanners were released with the manual WMH segmentations for training. A test set of 110 images from five MR scanners was used for evaluation. The segmentation methods had to be containerized and submitted to the challenge organizers. Five evaluation metrics were used to rank the methods: 1) Dice similarity coefficient; 2) modified Hausdorff distance (95th percentile); 3) absolute log-transformed volume difference; 4) sensitivity for detecting individual lesions; and 5) F1-score for individual lesions. In addition, the methods were ranked on their inter-scanner robustness; 20 participants submitted their methods for evaluation. This paper provides a detailed analysis of the results. In brief, there is a cluster of four methods that rank significantly better than the other methods, with one clear winner. The inter-scanner robustness ranking shows that not all the methods generalize to unseen scanners. The challenge remains open for future submissions and provides a public platform for method evaluation.
Niravkumar A Patel, Gang Li, Weijian Shang, Marek Wartenberg, Tamas Heffter, Everette C Burdette, Iulian Iordachita, Junichi Tokuda, Nobuhiko Hata, Clare M Tempany, and Gregory S Fischer. 2019. “System Integration and Preliminary Clinical Evaluation of a Robotic System for MRI-Guided Transperineal Prostate Biopsy.” J Med Robot Res, 4, 2.Abstract
This paper presents the development, preclinical evaluation, and preliminary clinical study of a robotic system for targeted transperineal prostate biopsy under direct interventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) guidance. The clinically integrated robotic system is developed based on a modular design approach, comprised of surgical navigation application, robot control software, MRI robot controller hardware, and robotic needle placement manipulator. The system provides enabling technologies for MRI-guided procedures. It can be easily transported and setup for supporting the clinical workflow of interventional procedures, and the system is readily extensible and reconfigurable to other clinical applications. Preclinical evaluation of the system is performed with phantom studies in a 3 Tesla MRI scanner, rehearsing the proposed clinical workflow, and demonstrating an in-plane targeting error of 1.5mm. The robotic system has been approved by the institutional review board (IRB) for clinical trials. A preliminary clinical study is conducted with the patient consent, demonstrating the targeting errors at two biopsy target sites to be 4.0 and 3.7, which is sufficient to target a clinically significant tumor foci. First-in-human trials to evaluate the system's effectiveness and accuracy for MR image-guide prostate biopsy are underway.
Ananya Panda, Gregory OʼConnor, Wei Ching Lo, Yun Jiang, Seunghee Margevicius, Mark Schluchter, Lee E Ponsky, and Vikas Gulani. 2019. “Targeted Biopsy Validation of Peripheral Zone Prostate Cancer Characterization With Magnetic Resonance Fingerprinting and Diffusion Mapping.” Invest Radiol, 54, 8, Pp. 485-93.Abstract
OBJECTIVE: This study aims for targeted biopsy validation of magnetic resonance fingerprinting (MRF) and diffusion mapping for characterizing peripheral zone (PZ) prostate cancer and noncancers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred four PZ lesions in 85 patients who underwent magnetic resonance imaging were retrospectively analyzed with apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) mapping, MRF, and targeted biopsy (cognitive or in-gantry). A radiologist blinded to pathology drew regions of interest on targeted lesions and visually normal peripheral zone on MRF and ADC maps. Mean T1, T2, and ADC were analyzed using linear mixed models. Generalized estimating equations logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate T1 and T2 relaxometry combined with ADC in differentiating pathologic groups. RESULTS: Targeted biopsy revealed 63 cancers (low-grade cancer/Gleason score 6 = 10, clinically significant cancer/Gleason score ≥7 = 53), 15 prostatitis, and 26 negative biopsies. Prostate cancer T1, T2, and ADC (mean ± SD, 1660 ± 270 milliseconds, 56 ± 20 milliseconds, 0.70 × 10 ± 0.24 × 10 mm/s) were significantly lower than prostatitis (mean ± SD, 1730 ± 350 milliseconds, 77 ± 36 milliseconds, 1.00 × 10 ± 0.30 × 10 mm/s) and negative biopsies (mean ± SD, 1810 ± 250 milliseconds, 71 ± 37 milliseconds, 1.00 × 10 ± 0.33 × 10 mm/s). For cancer versus prostatitis, ADC was sensitive and T2 specific with comparable area under curve (AUC; (AUCT2 = 0.71, AUCADC = 0.79, difference between AUCs not significant P = 0.37). T1 + ADC (AUCT1 + ADC = 0.83) provided the best separation between cancer and negative biopsies. Low-grade cancer T2 and ADC (mean ± SD, 75 ± 29 milliseconds, 0.96 × 10 ± 0.34 × 10 mm/s) were significantly higher than clinically significant cancers (mean ± SD, 52 ± 16 milliseconds, 0.65 ± 0.18 × 10 mm/s), and T2 + ADC (AUCT2 + ADC = 0.91) provided the best separation. CONCLUSIONS: T1 and T2 relaxometry combined with ADC mapping may be useful for quantitative characterization of prostate cancer grades and differentiating cancer from noncancers for PZ lesions seen on T2-weighted images.
Fan Zhang, Ye Wu, Isaiah Norton, Yogesh Rathi, Alexandra J Golby, and Lauren J O'Donnell. 2019. “Test-retest Reproducibility of White Matter Parcellation using Diffusion MRI Tractography Fiber Clustering.” Hum Brain Mapp, 40, 10, Pp. 3041-57.Abstract
There are two popular approaches for automated white matter parcellation using diffusion MRI tractography, including fiber clustering strategies that group white matter fibers according to their geometric trajectories and cortical-parcellation-based strategies that focus on the structural connectivity among different brain regions of interest. While multiple studies have assessed test-retest reproducibility of automated white matter parcellations using cortical-parcellation-based strategies, there are no existing studies of test-retest reproducibility of fiber clustering parcellation. In this work, we perform what we believe is the first study of fiber clustering white matter parcellation test-retest reproducibility. The assessment is performed on three test-retest diffusion MRI datasets including a total of 255 subjects across genders, a broad age range (5-82 years), health conditions (autism, Parkinson's disease and healthy subjects), and imaging acquisition protocols (three different sites). A comprehensive evaluation is conducted for a fiber clustering method that leverages an anatomically curated fiber clustering white matter atlas, with comparison to a popular cortical-parcellation-based method. The two methods are compared for the two main white matter parcellation applications of dividing the entire white matter into parcels (i.e., whole brain white matter parcellation) and identifying particular anatomical fiber tracts (i.e., anatomical fiber tract parcellation). Test-retest reproducibility is measured using both geometric and diffusion features, including volumetric overlap (wDice) and relative difference of fractional anisotropy. Our experimental results in general indicate that the fiber clustering method produced more reproducible white matter parcellations than the cortical-parcellation-based method.
Bojan Kocev, Horst Karl Hahn, Lars Linsen, William M Wells, and Ron Kikinis. 2019. “Uncertainty-aware Asynchronous Scattered Motion Interpolation using Gaussian Process Regression.” Comput Med Imaging Graph, 72, Pp. 1-12.Abstract
We address the problem of interpolating randomly non-uniformly spatiotemporally scattered uncertain motion measurements, which arises in the context of soft tissue motion estimation. Soft tissue motion estimation is of great interest in the field of image-guided soft-tissue intervention and surgery navigation, because it enables the registration of pre-interventional/pre-operative navigation information on deformable soft-tissue organs. To formally define the measurements as spatiotemporally scattered motion signal samples, we propose a novel motion field representation. To perform the interpolation of the motion measurements in an uncertainty-aware optimal unbiased fashion, we devise a novel Gaussian process (GP) regression model with a non-constant-mean prior and an anisotropic covariance function and show through an extensive evaluation that it outperforms the state-of-the-art GP models that have been deployed previously for similar tasks. The employment of GP regression enables the quantification of uncertainty in the interpolation result, which would allow the amount of uncertainty present in the registered navigation information governing the decisions of the surgeon or intervention specialist to be conveyed.
Edwin JR van Beek, Christiane Kuhl, Yoshimi Anzai, Patricia Desmond, Richard L Ehman, Qiyong Gong, Garry Gold, Vikas Gulani, Margaret Hall-Craggs, Tim Leiner, Tschoyoson CC Lim, James G Pipe, Scott Reeder, Caroline Reinhold, Marion Smits, Daniel K Sodickson, Clare Tempany, Alberto H Vargas, and Meiyun Wang. 2019. “Value of MRI in Medicine: More Than Just Another Test?” J Magn Reson Imaging, 49, 7, Pp. e14-e25.Abstract
There is increasing scrutiny from healthcare organizations towards the utility and associated costs of imaging. MRI has traditionally been used as a high-end modality, and although shown extremely important for many types of clinical scenarios, it has been suggested as too expensive by some. This editorial will try and explain how value should be addressed and gives some insights and practical examples of how value of MRI can be increased. It requires a global effort to increase accessibility, value for money, and impact on patient management. We hope this editorial sheds some light and gives some indications of where the field may wish to address some of its research to proactively demonstrate the value of MRI. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 5 Technical Efficacy: Stage 5 J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2018.
Beek JMRI 2018
Walid I Essayed, Prashin Unadkat, Ahmed Hosny, Sarah Frisken, Marcio S Rassi, Srinivasan Mukundan, James C Weaver, Ossama Al-Mefty, Alexandra J Golby, and Ian F Dunn. 2018. “3D Printing and Intraoperative Neuronavigation Tailoring for Skull Base Reconstruction after Extended Endoscopic Endonasal Surgery: Proof of Concept.” J Neurosurg, 130, 1, Pp. 248-55.Abstract
OBJECTIVE Endoscopic endonasal approaches are increasingly performed for the surgical treatment of multiple skull base pathologies. Preventing postoperative CSF leaks remains a major challenge, particularly in extended approaches. In this study, the authors assessed the potential use of modern multimaterial 3D printing and neuronavigation to help model these extended defects and develop specifically tailored prostheses for reconstructive purposes. METHODS Extended endoscopic endonasal skull base approaches were performed on 3 human cadaveric heads. Preprocedure and intraprocedure CT scans were completed and were used to segment and design extended and tailored skull base models. Multimaterial models with different core/edge interfaces were 3D printed for implantation trials. A novel application of the intraoperative landmark acquisition method was used to transfer the navigation, helping to tailor the extended models. RESULTS Prostheses were created based on preoperative and intraoperative CT scans. The navigation transfer offered sufficiently accurate data to tailor the preprinted extended skull base defect prostheses. Successful implantation of the skull base prostheses was achieved in all specimens. The progressive flexibility gradient of the models' edges offered the best compromise for easy intranasal maneuverability, anchoring, and structural stability. Prostheses printed based on intraprocedure CT scans were accurate in shape but slightly undersized. CONCLUSIONS Preoperative 3D printing of patient-specific skull base models is achievable for extended endoscopic endonasal surgery. The careful spatial modeling and the use of a flexibility gradient in the design helped achieve the most stable reconstruction. Neuronavigation can help tailor preprinted prostheses.
Fan Zhang, Ye Wu, Isaiah Norton, Laura Rigolo, Yogesh Rathi, Nikos Makris, and Lauren J O'Donnell. 2018. “An Anatomically Curated Fiber Clustering White Matter Atlas for Consistent White Matter Tract Parcellation across the Lifespan.” Neuroimage, 179, Pp. 429-47.Abstract
This work presents an anatomically curated white matter atlas to enable consistent white matter tract parcellation across different populations. Leveraging a well-established computational pipeline for fiber clustering, we create a tract-based white matter atlas including information from 100 subjects. A novel anatomical annotation method is proposed that leverages population-based brain anatomical information and expert neuroanatomical knowledge to annotate and categorize the fiber clusters. A total of 256 white matter structures are annotated in the proposed atlas, which provides one of the most comprehensive tract-based white matter atlases covering the entire brain to date. These structures are composed of 58 deep white matter tracts including major long range association and projection tracts, commissural tracts, and tracts related to the brainstem and cerebellar connections, plus 198 short and medium range superficial fiber clusters organized into 16 categories according to the brain lobes they connect. Potential false positive connections are annotated in the atlas to enable their exclusion from analysis or visualization. In addition, the proposed atlas allows for a whole brain white matter parcellation into 800 fiber clusters to enable whole brain connectivity analyses. The atlas and related computational tools are open-source and publicly available. We evaluate the proposed atlas using a testing dataset of 584 diffusion MRI scans from multiple independently acquired populations, across genders, the lifespan (1 day-82 years), and different health conditions (healthy control, neuropsychiatric disorders, and brain tumor patients). Experimental results show successful white matter parcellation across subjects from different populations acquired on multiple scanners, irrespective of age, gender or disease indications. Over 99% of the fiber tracts annotated in the atlas were detected in all subjects on average. One advantage in terms of robustness is that the tract-based pipeline does not require any cortical or subcortical segmentations, which can have limited success in young children and patients with brain tumors or other structural lesions. We believe this is the first demonstration of consistent automated white matter tract parcellation across the full lifespan from birth to advanced age.
Andriy Fedorov, Michael Schwier, David Clunie, Christian Herz, Steve Pieper, Ron Kikinis, Clare Tempany, and Fiona Fennessy. 2018. “An Annotated Test-retest Collection of Prostate Multiparametric MRI.” Sci Data, 5, Pp. 180281.Abstract
Multiparametric Magnetic Resonance Imaging (mpMRI) is widely used for characterizing prostate cancer. Standard of care use of mpMRI in clinic relies on visual interpretation of the images by an expert. mpMRI is also increasingly used as a quantitative imaging biomarker of the disease. Little is known about repeatability of such quantitative measurements, and no test-retest datasets have been available publicly to support investigation of the technical characteristics of the MRI-based quantification in the prostate. Here we present an mpMRI dataset consisting of baseline and repeat prostate MRI exams for 15 subjects, manually annotated to define regions corresponding to lesions and anatomical structures, and accompanied by region-based measurements. This dataset aims to support further investigation of the repeatability of mpMRI-derived quantitative prostate measurements, study of the robustness and reliability of the automated analysis approaches, and to support development and validation of new image analysis techniques. The manuscript can also serve as an example of the use of DICOM for standardized encoding of the image annotation and quantification results.
Sanjay S Yengul, Paul E Barbone, and Bruno Madore. 2018. “Application of a Forward Model of Axisymmetric Shear Wave Propagation in Viscoelastic Media to Shear Wave Elastography.” J Acoust Soc Am, 143, 6, Pp. 3266.Abstract
A simple but general solution of Navier's equation for axisymmetric shear wave propagation in a homogeneous isotropic viscoelastic medium is presented. It is well-suited for use as a forward model for some acoustic radiation force impulse based shear wave elastography applications because it does not require precise knowledge of the strength of the source, nor its spatial or temporal distribution. Instead, it depends on two assumptions: (1) the source distribution is axisymmetric and confined to a small region near the axis of symmetry, and (2) the propagation medium is isotropic and homogeneous. The model accounts for the vector polarization of shear waves and exactly represents geometric spreading of the shear wavefield, whether spherical, cylindrical, or neither. It makes no assumption about the frequency dependence of material parameters, i.e., it is material-model independent. Validation using measured shear wavefields excited by acoustic radiation force in a homogeneous gelatin sample show that the model accounts for well over 90% of the measured wavefield "energy." An optimal fit of the model to simulated shear wavefields with noise in a homogeneous viscoelastic medium enables estimation of both the shear storage modulus and shear wave attenuation to within 1%.
David Black, Michael Unger, Nele Fischer, Ron Kikinis, Horst Hahn, Thomas Neumuth, and Bernhard Glaser. 2018. “Auditory Display as Feedback for a Novel Eye-tracking System for Sterile Operating Room Interaction.” Int J Comput Assist Radiol Surg, 13, 1, Pp. 37-45.Abstract
PURPOSE: The growing number of technical systems in the operating room has increased attention on developing touchless interaction methods for sterile conditions. However, touchless interaction paradigms lack the tactile feedback found in common input devices such as mice and keyboards. We propose a novel touchless eye-tracking interaction system with auditory display as a feedback method for completing typical operating room tasks. Auditory display provides feedback concerning the selected input into the eye-tracking system as well as a confirmation of the system response. METHODS: An eye-tracking system with a novel auditory display using both earcons and parameter-mapping sonification was developed to allow touchless interaction for six typical scrub nurse tasks. An evaluation with novice participants compared auditory display with visual display with respect to reaction time and a series of subjective measures. RESULTS: When using auditory display to substitute for the lost tactile feedback during eye-tracking interaction, participants exhibit reduced reaction time compared to using visual-only display. In addition, the auditory feedback led to lower subjective workload and higher usefulness and system acceptance ratings. CONCLUSION: Due to the absence of tactile feedback for eye-tracking and other touchless interaction methods, auditory display is shown to be a useful and necessary addition to new interaction concepts for the sterile operating room, reducing reaction times while improving subjective measures, including usefulness, user satisfaction, and cognitive workload.
David Black, Horst K Hahn, Ron Kikinis, Karin Wårdell, and Neda Haj-Hosseini. 2018. “Auditory Display for Fluorescence-guided Open Brain Tumor Surgery.” Int J Comput Assist Radiol Surg, 13, 1, Pp. 25-35.Abstract
PURPOSE: Protoporphyrin (PpIX) fluorescence allows discrimination of tumor and normal brain tissue during neurosurgery. A handheld fluorescence (HHF) probe can be used for spectroscopic measurement of 5-ALA-induced PpIX to enable objective detection compared to visual evaluation of fluorescence. However, current technology requires that the surgeon either views the measured values on a screen or employs an assistant to verbally relay the values. An auditory feedback system was developed and evaluated for communicating measured fluorescence intensity values directly to the surgeon. METHODS: The auditory display was programmed to map the values measured by the HHF probe to the playback of tones that represented three fluorescence intensity ranges and one error signal. Ten persons with no previous knowledge of the application took part in a laboratory evaluation. After a brief training period, participants performed measurements on a tray of 96 wells of liquid fluorescence phantom and verbally stated the perceived measurement values for each well. The latency and accuracy of the participants' verbal responses were recorded. The long-term memorization of sound function was evaluated in a second set of 10 participants 2-3 and 7-12 days after training. RESULTS: The participants identified the played tone accurately for 98% of measurements after training. The median response time to verbally identify the played tones was 2 pulses. No correlation was found between the latency and accuracy of the responses, and no significant correlation with the musical proficiency of the participants was observed on the function responses. Responses for the memory test were 100% accurate. CONCLUSION: The employed auditory display was shown to be intuitive, easy to learn and remember, fast to recognize, and accurate in providing users with measurements of fluorescence intensity or error signal. The results of this work establish a basis for implementing and further evaluating auditory displays in clinical scenarios involving fluorescence guidance and other areas for which categorized auditory display could be useful.
Jens Sjölund, Anders Eklund, Evren Özarslan, Magnus Herberthson, Maria Bånkestad, and Hans Knutsson. 2018. “Bayesian Uncertainty Quantification in Linear Models for Diffusion MRI.” Neuroimage, 175, Pp. 272-85.Abstract
Diffusion MRI (dMRI) is a valuable tool in the assessment of tissue microstructure. By fitting a model to the dMRI signal it is possible to derive various quantitative features. Several of the most popular dMRI signal models are expansions in an appropriately chosen basis, where the coefficients are determined using some variation of least-squares. However, such approaches lack any notion of uncertainty, which could be valuable in e.g. group analyses. In this work, we use a probabilistic interpretation of linear least-squares methods to recast popular dMRI models as Bayesian ones. This makes it possible to quantify the uncertainty of any derived quantity. In particular, for quantities that are affine functions of the coefficients, the posterior distribution can be expressed in closed-form. We simulated measurements from single- and double-tensor models where the correct values of several quantities are known, to validate that the theoretically derived quantiles agree with those observed empirically. We included results from residual bootstrap for comparison and found good agreement. The validation employed several different models: Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI), Mean Apparent Propagator MRI (MAP-MRI) and Constrained Spherical Deconvolution (CSD). We also used in vivo data to visualize maps of quantitative features and corresponding uncertainties, and to show how our approach can be used in a group analysis to downweight subjects with high uncertainty. In summary, we convert successful linear models for dMRI signal estimation to probabilistic models, capable of accurate uncertainty quantification.
Tony W Trinh, Daniel I Glazer, Cheryl A Sadow, Anik V Sahni, Nina L Geller, and Stuart G Silverman. 2018. “Bladder Cancer Diagnosis with CT Urography: Test Characteristics and Reasons for False-positive and False-negative Results.” Abdom Radiol (NY), 43, 3, Pp. 663-71.Abstract
PURPOSE: To determine test characteristics of CT urography for detecting bladder cancer in patients with hematuria and those undergoing surveillance, and to analyze reasons for false-positive and false-negative results. METHODS: A HIPAA-compliant, IRB-approved retrospective review of reports from 1623 CT urograms between 10/2010 and 12/31/2013 was performed. 710 examinations for hematuria or bladder cancer history were compared to cystoscopy performed within 6 months. Reference standard was surgical pathology or 1-year minimum clinical follow-up. False-positive and false-negative examinations were reviewed to determine reasons for errors. RESULTS: Ninety-five bladder cancers were detected. CT urography accuracy: was 91.5% (650/710), sensitivity 86.3% (82/95), specificity 92.4% (568/615), positive predictive value 63.6% (82/129), and negative predictive value was 97.8% (568/581). Of 43 false positives, the majority of interpretation errors were due to benign prostatic hyperplasia (n = 12), trabeculated bladder (n = 9), and treatment changes (n = 8). Other causes include blood clots, mistaken normal anatomy, infectious/inflammatory changes, or had no cystoscopic correlate. Of 13 false negatives, 11 were due to technique, one to a large urinary residual, one to artifact. There were no errors in perception. CONCLUSION: CT urography is an accurate test for diagnosing bladder cancer; however, in protocols relying predominantly on excretory phase images, overall sensitivity remains insufficient to obviate cystoscopy. Awareness of bladder cancer mimics may reduce false-positive results. Improvements in CTU technique may reduce false-negative results.
Laura Stefanik, Lauren Erdman, Stephanie H Ameis, George Foussias, Benoit H Mulsant, Tina Behdinan, Anna Goldenberg, Lauren J O'Donnell, and Aristotle N Voineskos. 2018. “Brain-Behavior Participant Similarity Networks Among Youth and Emerging Adults with Schizophrenia Spectrum, Autism Spectrum, or Bipolar Disorder and Matched Controls.” Neuropsychopharmacology, 43, 5, Pp. 1180-8.Abstract
There is considerable heterogeneity in social cognitive and neurocognitive performance among people with schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSD), autism spectrum disorders (ASD), bipolar disorder (BD), and healthy individuals. This study used Similarity Network Fusion (SNF), a novel data-driven approach, to identify participant similarity networks based on relationships among demographic, brain imaging, and behavioral data. T1-weighted and diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance images were obtained for 174 adolescents and young adults (aged 16-35 years) with an SSD (n=51), an ASD without intellectual disability (n=38), euthymic BD (n=34), and healthy controls (n=51). A battery of social cognitive and neurocognitive tasks were administered. Data integration, cluster determination, and biological group formation were then obtained using SNF. We identified four new groups of individuals, each with distinct neural circuit-cognitive profiles. The most influential variables driving the formation of the new groups were robustly reliable across embedded resampling techniques. The data-driven groups showed considerably greater differentiation on key social and neurocognitive circuit nodes than groups generated by diagnostic analyses or dimensional social cognitive analyses. The data-driven groups were validated through functional outcome and brain network property measures not included in the SNF model. Cutting across diagnostic boundaries, our approach can effectively identify new groups of people based on a profile of neuroimaging and behavioral data. Our findings bring us closer to disease subtyping that can be leveraged toward the targeting of specific neural circuitry among participant subgroups to ameliorate social cognitive and neurocognitive deficits.Neuropsychopharmacology advance online publication, 6 December; doi:10.1038/npp.2017.274.
Marek Wartenberg, Joseph Schornak, Katie Gandomi, Paulo Carvalho, Chris Nycz, Niravkumar Patel, Iulian Iordachita, Clare Tempany, Nobuhiko Hata, Junichi Tokuda, and Gregory S. Fischer. 2018. “Closed-Loop Active Compensation for Needle Deflection and Target Shift During Cooperatively Controlled Robotic Needle Insertion.” Ann Biomed Eng, 46, 10, Pp. 1582-94.Abstract
Intra-operative imaging is sometimes available to assist needle biopsy, but typical open-loop insertion does not account for unmodeled needle deflection or target shift. Closed-loop image-guided compensation for deviation from an initial straight-line trajectory through rotational control of an asymmetric tip can reduce targeting error. Incorporating robotic closed-loop control often reduces physician interaction with the patient, but by pairing closed-loop trajectory compensation with hands-on cooperatively controlled insertion, a physician's control of the procedure can be maintained while incorporating benefits of robotic accuracy. A series of needle insertions were performed with a typical 18G needle using closed-loop active compensation under both fully autonomous and user-directed cooperative control. We demonstrated equivalent improvement in accuracy while maintaining physician-in-the-loop control with no statistically significant difference (p > 0.05) in the targeting accuracy between any pair of autonomous or individual cooperative sets, with average targeting accuracy of 3.56 mm. With cooperatively controlled insertions and target shift between 1 and 10 mm introduced upon needle contact, the system was able to effectively compensate up to the point where error approached a maximum curvature governed by bending mechanics. These results show closed-loop active compensation can enhance targeting accuracy, and that the improvement can be maintained under user directed cooperative insertion.
Elmira Hassanzadeh, Francesco Alessandrino, Olutayo I Olubiyi, Daniel I Glazer, Robert V. Mulkern, Andriy Fedorov, Clare M Tempany, and Fiona M Fennessy. 2018. “Comparison of Quantitative Apparent Diffusion Coefficient Parameters with Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System V2 Assessment for Detection of Clinically Significant Peripheral Zone Prostate Cancer.” Abdom Radiol (NY), 43, 5, Pp. 1237-44.Abstract
PURPOSE: To compare diagnostic performance of PI-RADSv2 with ADC parameters to identify clinically significant prostate cancer (csPC) and to determine the impact of csPC definitions on diagnostic performance of ADC and PI-RADSv2. METHODS: We retrospectively identified treatment-naïve pathology-proven peripheral zone PC patients who underwent 3T prostate MRI, using high b-value diffusion-weighted imaging from 2011 to 2015. Using 3D slicer, areas of suspected tumor (T) and normal tissue (N) on ADC (b = 0, 1400) were outlined volumetrically. Mean ADCT, mean ADCN, ADCratio (ADCT/ADCN) were calculated. PI-RADSv2 was assigned. Three csPC definitions were used: (A) Gleason score (GS) ≥ 4 + 3; (B) GS ≥ 3 + 4; (C) MRI-based tumor volume >0.5 cc. Performances of ADC parameters and PI-RADSv2 in identifying csPC were measured using nonparametric comparison of receiver operating characteristic curves using the area under the curve (AUC). RESULTS: Eighty five cases met eligibility requirements. Diagnostic performances (AUC) in identifying csPC using three definitions were: (A) ADCT (0.83) was higher than PI-RADSv2 (0.65, p = 0.006); (B) ADCT (0.86) was higher than ADCratio (0.68, p < 0.001), and PI-RADSv2 (0.70, p = 0.04); (C) PI-RADSv2 (0.73) performed better than ADCratio (0.56, p = 0.02). ADCT performance was higher when csPC was defined by A or B versus C (p = 0.038 and p = 0.01, respectively). ADCratio performed better when csPC was defined by A versus C (p = 0.01). PI-RADSv2 performance was not affected by csPC definition. CONCLUSIONS: When csPC was defined by GS, ADC parameters provided better csPC discrimination than PI-RADSv2, with ADCT providing best result. When csPC was defined by MRI-calculated volume, PI-RADSv2 provided better discrimination than ADCratio. csPC definition did not affect PI-RADSv2 diagnostic performance.